Normally, the greatest challenge for commanders is to focus the intelligence effort, and to gain dissemination of intelligence to the right place in time for key decisions.
This manual provides the doctrinal framework
for synchronizing the Intelligence System of Systems (ISOS), maximizing
collection technologies in support of commanders.
The ISOS is a flexible and tailorable architecture
of procedures, organizations, and equipment that supports the
combat commander by meeting his intelligence needs. Key to this
concept is the recognition that current and evolving collection,
exploitation, and dissemination technologies provide commanders
with an unprecedented capability to truly see the battlefield.
What Is It ?
The set of procedures that orchestrate ISOS organizations
and systems to focus the intelligence effort in support of warfighting
and operations other than war.
Intelligence soldiers perform collection
management at all echelons, across the scope of military operations.
An Army collection manager at a theater Joint
Intelligence Center (JIC) supports a JTF deployment with imagery
coverage of an aerial port of debarkation.
A staff sergeant in the Corps Analysis and Control
Company initiates action to task the Corps MI Brigade to report
any increase in radar emissions from a series of tactical surface-to-air
missile (SAM) sites.
An S2 briefs the scout platoon leader to perform
reconnaissance along route ZEBRA and report any indications of
enemy reconnaissance activity at named areas of interest (NAIs)
6 and 7.
Desired End Effect:
The collection manager acquires information that
satisfies the command's intelligence requirements within timelines
that support operational decisions.
Success Results In:
Commanders receive the intelligence they require
in time to make and execute operational decisions.
Consequences of Failure:
Commanders do not receive the intelligence they
need to make informed decisions, forcing them to accept risk.
Collection Management Sub-Functions
CM includes three distinct sub-functions:
These sub-functions distinguish between internal and external relationships among collection managers, requesters,
and collectors during CM operations. Figure 1-1
shows these functional relationships.
At division, corps, and echelons above corps
(EAC) there are individual "managers" and sections responsible
for each sub-fiction. At brigade, and echelons below brigade,
the S2 performs RM and MM, and sometimes AM, himself--often simultaneously.
RM defines what to collect, when, and
The command's intelligence collection requirements--both
priority intelligence requirements (PIR) and information requirements
(IR)--are initially developed during the "decision making"
process. As planning continues and during the operation itself,
these requirements are continuously updated based upon collection
results and changes to the operational concept.
In addition to the intelligence requirements
of his own command, the collection manager receives requests for
information from outside agencies. The requirements manager screens
each request to ensure that it has been forwarded properly and
that it is valid in terms of pertinence, feasibility, and completeness.
The requirements manager checks local data bases
to determine if information satisfying the request is already
on hand. If not, he creates a new requirement for collection or
exploitation. The requirements manager integrates new orders and
requests for intelligence with the command's own requirements,
prioritizes the entire set of requirements, and refines them into
specific information requirements (SIRs). Effective RM results
in a "what to collect" that is clear, concise, and collectible.
Correlating intelligence reporting to the original
requirement and evaluating that reporting are key sub-functions
of RM. This is the quality control effort that helps ensure timely
satisfaction of intelligence requirements. RM includes dissemination
of reporting and related information to original requesters
and other users. All of these functions require a recording system
that allows the requirements manager to track the progress of
each requirement and cross-reference incoming reports to outstanding
Creating and updating the collection plan
and synchronization planning are a shared responsibility
between the functions of RM and MM (see Chapters 2
Mission Management (MM)
MM defines how to employ collection resources
to satisfy requirements.
MM evaluates the suitability of systems, units,
and agencies based upon capability and availability. It maps out
the collection strategy, synchronizing collection schedules
to PIR and deriving specific orders and requests (SORs) from SIRs.This strategy is captured in the collection plan. MM generates
the actual collection task and requests and continually monitors
resource readiness and performance.
MM is also exploitation management. Exploitation
management uses intelligence processing equipment to make intelligence
collected by theater or national agencies available to tactical
users. Exploitation management is part of collection planning;
it answers requirements without the commitment of additional collection
resources. Exploitation management implements the "push and
pull" concept behind intelligence echelonment (see FM 34-1).
Asset Management (AM)
AM executes collection and/or exploitation in
accordance with collection plan requirements and tasking. AM combines
the "what, when, and where" to collect from RM with
the "how" from MM, and executes the collection mission
with specific assets and resources. AM involves, for example,
the resource-specific planning required to launch an aerial exploitation
battalion mission or emplace a long-range surveillance (LRS) team.
Unit commanders conduct AM.
The fielding of "shared" systems, such
as Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS),
presents new perspectives on AM. For example, the presence of
multiple Joint STARS ground station modules (GSMs), each capable
of directly "tasking" Joint STARS, requires that tasking
authority (and thereby AM authority) be clearly stated in the
appropriate operations and air tasking orders. This authority
may be time phased, as one command "hands over" tasking
or targets to another.
AM tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs)
are addressed in various echelon manuals (FMs 34-10,
Collection Management Process
The collection management process itself consists
of the following six steps. Chapter 3
discusses these steps in detail.
The sub-functions of collection management overlap
in these steps. Requirements development, report evaluation, and
dissemination are the exclusive domain of RM. However, RM and
MM both contribute to collection plan development and update.
MM and AM both task collection and exploitation resources.
Chapter 3 of this
manual discusses in detail each step in the collection management
process. We intentionally address RM and MM as functions performed
by separate individuals and sections to clearly delineate responsibility.
At some echelons this may not be the case; sometimes, one individual
or section performs both functions. Chapter 5
discusses who does what at each echelon.
Collection Management and
Joint doctrine (Joint Publication 2-01) divides
collection management into two sub-functions: Collection requirements
management (CRM) and collection operations management (COM). CRM
corresponds directly to RM, with one exception--dissemination.
Joint doctrine moves the responsibility for dissemination to COM,
the joint equivalent of MM. Chapter 5
addresses conducting collection management in a joint, combined,
or interagency environment.
Doctrine Versus Tactics,
Techniques, and Procedures
Doctrine, at its broadest reach is descriptive, not prescriptive.
This manual does not serve as a definitive "desktop"
handbook for collection managers. Collection management TTP may
vary according to mission, organization, echelon, and theater.
While we provide current collection, exploitation, dissemination
system descriptions, collection "problem set" scenarios,
and a representative example of tasking and request formats, the
ISOS "revolution of coverage" continues. This, and the
complexity of the various problems collection managers face, makes
the inclusion of TTP to cover every situation impractical. Every
collection manager must adapt the doctrine to his mission, available
systems, echelon, and theater of operations.