Doc Info &
If I always appear prepared,
it is because before entering on an undertaking, I have meditated
for long and foreseen what may occur.
--Napoleon Bonaparte, 1769-1821
In the force projection era,
the Army relies largely on a CONUS-based force with a relatively
small forward presence that can rapidly project combat power anywhere
in the world. IEW provides the commander with the intelligence
he needs to successfully plan and execute force projection operations.
As stated in Chapter 1, IEW support to force projection operations rests on the understanding of five principles: the commander drives intelligence, intelligence synchronization, split-based operations, tactical tailoring, and broadcast dissemination. These principles, executed in joint, combined, or interagency environments, are critical
to successful force projection operations.
PEACETIME IEW OPERATIONS
Successful IEW support during
force projection operations relies on continuous peacetime information
collection and intelligence production. Peacetime IEW operations
support contingency planning and develop baseline knowledge of
multiple potential threats and operational environments. They
engage and challenge the Intelligence BOS to respond effectively
to the commanders' contingency planning intelligence requirements.
During peacetime, commanders conduct critical examinations of
Ml force structures, operations, and training. These examinations
ultimately lead to a mission-ready IEW force which supports the
needs of the commander, and meets the key force projection imperatives
of flexibility, scalability, and tailorability.
Peacetime IEW operations are
particularly important to corps and division commanders. In force
projection operations, the Army force (ARFOR) in the joint force
will be drawn largely from CONUS-based corps and divisions. In
addition, a corps or division commander could also be appointed
the ARFOR or JTF commander. Corps and division commanders must,
therefore, be prepared not only to provide the ARFOR to the JTF
but also to assume the duties of the ARFOR or JTF commander. Both
responsibilities require the commander to place additional emphasis
on intelligence readiness. The corps and division commanders need
intelligence to support contingency-based training and planning.
They need the broad understanding of the operational environment
of the contingency area that comes from continuous interaction
with higher echelon and joint intelligence organizations. Commanders
must focus and drive the intelligence system daily to ensure this
support is available and that their forces and staffs are ready
to conduct force projection operations.
IEW AND THE STAGES OF FORCE PROJECTION
IEW supports the eight stages
of force projection operations.
IEW operations must anticipate, identify, consider, and evaluate all potential threats to the force as a whole throughout force projection operations. This is especially critical during the deployment and entry operations stages of force projection. During these stages, US Forces are particularly vulnerable to threat actions. Intelligence personnel must, therefore, emphasize the delivery of I&W products that indicate a basic change to the nature of US operations in theater.
Mobilization is the process
by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought to a state
of readiness for war or other national emergency. The Army Mobilization
and Operations Planning and Execution System (AMOPES) and
FM 100-17 provide guidance for mobilization of assets for contingencies
and large protracted conflicts or wars. To prepare for and execute
mobilization, commanders and G2s (S2s) should consider the following:
Predeployment activity provides
the foundation for subsequent force projection operations. During
this stage, commanders ensure AC and RC MI organizations are trained
and equipped to conduct IEW operations. Commanders integrate mobilization
and deployment tasks into unit METL and training. Commanders also
emphasize and integrate critical aspects of force projection into
battle tasks and planning.
In planning force projection
operations, the commander establishes intelligence requirements
which direct peacetime intelligence operations supporting contingency
planning. Key contingency planning ingredients are to stay out
front in intelligence planning by developing broad baseline knowledge
on contingency areas, and to understand how to get intelligence
support. As OPLANs are activated, the commander focuses on intelligence
to support specific mission decisions and planning requirements.
In addition, the commander begins planning for the crossover point
in intelligence when initial reliance on higher echelon intelligence
is replaced by tactical IEW assets within the AO. See Figure 3-1.
The G2 (S2) supports peacetime
contingency planning with IPB products and data bases on likely
contingency areas. The OPLAN identifies the IEW requirements supporting
that plan, to include --
supporting both intelligence staffs and collection assets. Signal
commands must be involved in communications planning.
The OPLAN also establishes
collection strategies and plans that will activate upon alert
notification. For smooth transition from predeployment to entry,
intelligence staffs must coordinate collection and communications
plans before the crisis occurs.
The G2 (S2) and MI units must continually monitor and update their OPLANs to reflect the evolving situation, especially during crisis situations. National intelligence activities monitor regional threats throughout the world and can answer some intelligence requirements supporting the development of OPLANs. The commander and G2 (S2) must be proactive in focusing national and theater intelligence on emerging requirements.
Upon alert notification, intelligence
staffs update estimates and IPB products needed to support command
decisions on force composition, deployment priorities and sequence,
and the AO. At the strategic level, planners use the updated IPB
products to assist in developing the logistics preparation of
the theater plan which attempts to minimize requirements for strategic
lift and maximize the in-theater support capabilities. MI organizations
at all echelons reassess their collection requirements immediately
after alert notification. Collection managers begin verifying
planning assumptions within the OPLANs. MDCI and other IEW personnel
provide force protection support to optimize OPSEC and antiterrorism
Throughout the predeployment
and deployment stages, intelligence activities provide deploying
forces with the most recent intelligence on the AO. G2 (S2) and
MI units also update technical data bases and situation graphics.
Success in force projection
operations hinges on the capability of airlift and sealift assets
to move forces to the AO, as well as the timely deployment of
air and seaport transportation, terminal, and deployment control
units. The size and composition of forces requiring lift are based
on METT-T, the availability of pre-positioned assets, the capabilities
of host nation support, and the forward-presence of US Forces.
Force or tactical tailoring is the process used to determine what
is the correct mix and sequence of deploying units.
One of the first tailored
IEW assets to deploy with the force G2 (S2) is the DISE. The DISE
is the initial forward intelligence support team of split-based
operations. The mission of the DISE is to provide the deployed
commander accurate, detailed, continuous, and timely intelligence
in support of the rapid introduction of US Forces. Depending on
the size and mission of the deployed force, the DISE may be the
only MI asset actually deployed in-country to support the G2 (S2).
In large operations, the DISE may deploy with and support the
early entry force G2 (S2) until the complete processing capability
of the unit's ACE arrives. Once the ACE is in place, the DISE
rejoins the ACE, moves forward to support the tactical command
post, or moves to wherever its capabilities may be required. The
two types of tailorable DISE configurations are the Mini-DISE
(manportable packages), and DISE (vehicular). Together, these
DISE configurations provide the commander with a robust intelligence
capability in support of a deploying force. Figure 3-2 provides an example of two possible initial entry packages.
During deployment, intelligence
organizations in the rear such as the CMISE and the ACE of the
theater MI brigade take advantage of modern satellite communications
(SATCOM), broadcast technology, and automatic data processing
(ADP) systems to provide graphic and textual intelligence updates
to the forces enroute. Enroute updates help eliminate information
voids and allow the commander to adjust OPORDS prior to arrival
Intelligence units extend
established networks to connect intelligence staffs and collection
assets at various stages of the deployment flow. Where necessary,
new communications paths are established to meet unique demands
of the mission. The theater ACE and the CMISE play a critical
role in making communications paths, networks, and intelligence
data bases available to deploying forces.
Space-based systems play an
important part in supporting IEW during the deployment and the
subsequent stages of force projection operations by --
Force protection and situation
development dominate IEW activities in this stage. Intelligence
staffs attempt to identify all threats to arriving forces and
assist the commander in developing force protection measures.
During initial entry operations,
echelons above corps (EAC) organizations provide major intelligence
support. This support includes providing access to departmental
and joint intelligence, and deploying scalable EAC intelligence
assets. The entire effort focuses downwardly to provide tailored
support to deploying and deployed echelons in response to their
commanders' PIR and IR.
Collection and processing
capabilities are enhanced as IEW assets build up in the deployment
area. Particular attention is given to the buildup of the in-theater
capability required to conduct sustained IEW operations. As the
buildup continues, intelligence staffs strive to reduce total
dependence on extended split-based "top-driven" intelligence
from outside the AO. As organic IEW assets flow into the theater,
intelligence staffs begin to rely on them for tactical intelligence
although national and theater organization remain a source of
tactical and operational intelligence. Figure 3-3 illustrates
IEW tactical tailoring and imperatives.
Intelligence staffs provide
the commander support in planning the composition and deployment
of follow-on combat, CS, and CSS units. As AR FOR enter the theater
of operations, the JTF J2 implements, and where necessary, modifies
the theater intelligence architecture planned during predeployment.
Deploying intelligence assets
establish liaison with staffs and units already present in the
AO. Liaison personnel and basic communications should be in place
prior to the scheduled arrival of parent commands. MI units establish
intelligence communications networks to support combat commanders.
Coordinating staffs at all
levels establish reporting and request procedures to ensure the
timely receipt of intelligence.
CONUS and other secure intelligence support bases outside the AO continue to support deployed units. In a mature theater, as systems such as Joint STARS begin operating, units equipped with the Joint STARS ground station module (GSM) or the common ground station (CGS) will be able to receive downlink data in NRT tailored to each unit's area of operation.
Systems capable of rapid receipt
and processing of intelligence from national systems and high
capacity, long-haul communications systems are critical to the
success of split-based support of a force projection operation.
These systems can provide a continuous flow of intelligence, including
annotated imagery products, to satisfy many operational needs.
Examples of these type systems are the Imagery Processing and
Dissemination System (IPDS), the Electronic Processing and Dissemination
System (EPDS), TROJAN SPIRIT, and SUCCESS radio.
Intelligence staffs help plan
friendly deception, deep attack, and other operations that create
conditions for decisive operations. They also adjust collection
activities to look deeper into the battle space as combat strength
builds and begin to concentrate on situation and target development.
With sufficient combat power and resources in place, the commander shifts his focus from IEW support for deployment to support required for sustained operations. At the beginning of the operations stage, intelligence reaches the crossover point where tactical intelligence becomes the commander's primary source of support, replacing top-driven national and theater intelligence. The commander uses both tactical and operational intelligence to decisively engage and defeat the enemy in combat operations. In OOTW, the commander may use all levels of intelligence to accomplish his mission.
During operations, intelligence
staffs and units support the development and execution of plans
by identifying threat centers of gravity and decisive points on
the battlefield. The G2 (S2) ensures the collection management
and synchronization processes focus on the commander's PIR. MI
units continually evolve their concepts of employment to reflect
changes in the operation.
Figure 3-4 provides an example of IEW support during this stage of force projection operations.
War Termination and Postconflict
Upon cessation of hostilities
or truce, deployed forces enter a new stage of force projection
operations. Postconflict operations focus on restoring order,
reestablishing host nation infrastructure, preparing for redeployment
of forces, and planning residual presence of US Forces. While
postconflict operations strive to transition from war to peace,
there remains a possibility of resurgent hostilities by individuals
and forces. As during deployment, this stage and the next will
place renewed emphasis on force protection.
During this stage, commanders
redirect their PIR and IR to support units conducting restoration
operations. These might include --
Redeployment and Reconstitution:
As combat power and resources
decrease in the AO, force protection and I&W become the focus
of the commander's intelligence requirements. This in turn drives
the selection of those MI units that must remain deployed and
those which may redeploy.
Demobilization is the stage
where MI individuals and units return to premobilization posture
or predeployment activities. MI units resume contingency-oriented
peacetime IEW operations. RC MI units deactivate and return to