"Sources and Techniques" Title Page

Chapter 6: Information Transmission Channels

Section one -- The Concept of Channels

The transmission of knowledge depends on the movement of information in order to be realized. To cause information to move from the information source to the user, it is necessary to go through certain transmission channels. In the transmission of information, the first requirement is reliability; the second is high efficiency.

In describing information transmission channels, this chapter starts from the perspective of information science, describing transmission channels in a broad sense, which take information from the information source to the user. Looking at this from the perspective of the study of collection, the transmission channels used in obtaining information are merely the pre-channels within this broad definition of channels. Thus, in addition to the general features involved in information transmission channels, the transmission channels discussed in this chapter also emphasize the application of the general features of channels to analyze transmission channels used for obtaining information from the perspective of information collection, which are the transmission channels that take the information from the information source to the collection department or collection worker.

It must also be pointed out that the transmission channels we are discussing refer to information transmission channels between people or between people and institutions, and not the medium or carrier transmitting the knowledge.

In addition to the study of information sources and users, the research involved in collection must also study information transmission channels, so as to control the direction, speed, rate, and fidelity of the flow of information and to achieve selection of the optimal channel. In addition, the development and utilization of collection channels is also a basic technique of obtaining information.

Unless there is interference, information generally does not undergo any change in form or distortion of knowledge content during the process of transmission. When we investigate channels for collecting information, it is important to consider the transmission speed, transmission capacity, specialization spectrum of information transmission and the transmission reliability and anti-interference capability of the channel. We will not speak very much about issues of intelligence transmission, nor will we discuss intelligence transmission effectiveness.

Section Two -- Categories of Channels

Here we will roughly categorize channels based only on our own actual situation, using the following methods.

I. Categorization Based on Whether the Transmission Path Is Controlled by an Intelligence Worker

This can be divided into:

1. Direct Transmission Channels.

These are also called unofficial transmission channels. In this category of channels, the transmission of information from the information source to the user is generally not regulated and controlled by a collection worker or intelligence worker, or only partially so. Primarily, it is controlled and regulated by the sci-tech worker, or the institution he belongs to, or the exchange group. The forms taken by this type of transmission channel are roughly as follows:

(1) Face-to-face exchanges between sci-tech personnel within a work unit, or between sci-tech personnel and management personnel;

(2) Exchanges between sci-tech personnel and close colleagues and friends;

(3) Exchanges between colleagues in the same business as the sci-tech personnel where the exchange is only unilateral, such as observation;

(4) Conference exchanges, such as academic conferences, technical conferences, demonstration meetings, appraisal meetings, panel discussions, etc.;

(5) Exchanges aimed at the public at large via newspapers, television, or broadcasting;

(6) Exchanges by sci-tech personnel with persons outside his field, in other sectors of society in order to develop a new field of research.

2. Indirect Transmission Channels.

These are also called official transmission channels. In this category of channel, information transmitted from the information source to the user is controlled and regulated by a collection worker or intelligence worker. That is to say, the user obtains the necessary information with the help of intelligence work, relying on the intelligence system. This mode of transmission channel is more unitary.

3. Direct Transmission Channels

Intelligence workers or collection workers participate in the control. The transmission of verbal information is fast, highly focused, and feedback is rapid. Society's need for it is becoming more urgent. In the future, once artificial intelligence technology and fifth generation computing technology are combined, its position and role will naturally become more prominent. Thus, collecting verbal information and participating in the control of direct transmission are also gradually becoming a task of intelligence departments and collection departments, resulting in the appearance of this category of transmission channel. It is another mark delineating the distinction between the information collection work of intelligence work and the library work of finding and collecting books.

II. Categorization Based on the Relationship between the Information Source and the User

Information sources and users may be manifested in the forms of institutions or individuals. There are different types of relationships between them, and the features of the transmission channels are also different.

1. Administrative relationship channels. This type of channel is generally manifested as "top down," or "bottom up." The transmission of information is mandatory, a duty, and is achieved through reliance on the administrative structure. For example, if the user is the superior and the information source is the subordinate, when the user needs information, the information flows to the user via the administrative channel, by means of the administrative dynamic. When the superiors need verbal information, the subordinate must make a "report." Sometimes, information produced or stored by the superior passes through an administrative channel to the subordinate.

2. Economic relationship channels. This type of channel is generally maintained through economic conditions or balances. It is generally manifested as "orders," "purchases," "contracts," and "exchanges" or "agreements" established on the basis of economics.

3. Service relationship channels. This type of channel is generally established among intelligence units, libraries, and information units, similar information sources that store information, or radio stations, television stations and other information sources that broadcast information and users. Whether domestic or foreign, these information sources, to a certain extent, all have the quality of being a public benefit, and the transmission channels between them and their users are also to a certain extent a public service.

III. Categorization Based on the Method of Networking the Transmission Channel

Channels of information transmission are usually multi-segmented, network style channels. The function of the channel segments is not entirely linear. Based on the networking method used to link the segments of the channel, transmission channels may be categorized as:

1. Serial.

Similar to relay-style. The information is transmitted from the information source stage-by-stage towards the user or the intelligence institution or collection department. As shown in Figure 6.1, to transmit information from A to E, it must pass in order through sub-channels AB, BC, CE, and DE. B, C, D, and E may be users, or they may be intelligence institutions, collection departments, or intelligence workers or collection workers. Moreover, there must be one collection department (or collection worker) among them, serving as a primary control on the entire transmission process.

Figure 6.1 Serial transmission channel

[figure shows a straight line with points A through E connected in serial fashion]

Unidirectional active information collection or unidirectional passive information collection often uses this type of channel. Collection of secret information must use this type of channel. Information transmitted over long distances via telecommunications sometimes must choose this type of channel

. The overall number of connection segments in a serial channel can be calculated as follows:

When B connects with A: 1 connection time;
When C connects with A: 2 connection times;
When D connects with A: 3 connection times;
When E connects with A: 4 connection times.

A total of 10 connection times.

2. Centralized Style.

As shown in Figure 6.2, information transmitted from information source A to B, D, and E must always pass through node C. C may be an intelligence center, information center, information center, or publication center. B, D, and E may be users, or they may be intelligence institutions, collection departments, intelligence workers, or collection workers. Center C or another collection department (or collection worker) serves as the primary control over the entire transmission process.

The overall number of connection segments in a centralized style transmission channel may be calculated as follows:

When B connects with A: 2 connection times;
When C connects with A: 1 connection time;
When D connects with A: 2 connection times;
When E connects with A: 2 connection times.

A total of 7 connection times.

Figure 6.2 Centralized transmission channel

[figure shows point C at the center with four lines radiating off clockwise to points A, B, D, and E]

The centralized channel best embodies the historical stage of intelligence work and the social function of intelligence work. It is also currently the more commonly-used transmission channel in collection work.

3. Ring Style.

The method of transmitting information from information source A to B, C, D, and E is shown in Figure 6.3. B, C, D, and E may be users, or they may be intelligence institutions, collection departments, intelligence workers, or collection workers. Furthermore, there must be at least one unit or other collection department (or collection worker) among them functioning as the primary control over the entire transmission process.

The overall number of connection segments in a ring style transmission channel may be calculated as follows:

When B connects with A: 1 connection time;
When C connects with A: 2 connection times;
When D connects with A: 2 connection times;
When E connects with A: 1 connection time.

A total of 6 connection times.

This type of channel formation has the lowest total number of connection segments, facilitating the formation of a network. When collection channels are established in the future, this should be given full attention. Ring-style transmission channels will be a major transmission method of obtaining information in the technological stage of collection.

Figure 6.3 Ring-style transmission channel

[figure shows a pentagon with points A through E counterclockwise at each of five points]

4. Bilateral Style.

The method of transmitting information from information source A to B, C, D, and E is shown in Figure 6.4. B, C, D, and E may be users, or they may be intelligence institutions, collection departments, intelligence workers, or collection workers.

Figure 6.4 Bilateral-style transmission system

[figure shows point A with four straight lines radiating downward and connecting to points B through E at the end of each line]

Actually, this type of transmission method has the least total number of connection segments and appears to be the most simple and direct, because the connections between B, C, D, and E and source A are all direct channels.

From the perspective of collection work, this type of channel is a necessity, and may be used from time to time. However, in reality, requiring that a scientific research unit, information user or even an intelligence institution or collection department complete its own research and work duties and then disseminate this to a great number of places to fulfill the duty of information collection cannot be effectively implemented in the current society or in the future society.

The precondition for bilateral style transmission channels is the direct obtaining of information. This type of transmission method is one of the most rudimentary transmission methods. In intelligence activity where science and technology were not developed and during the historical period of collection activity, bilateral transmission was the basic mode of transmitting information. However, both now and in the future, bilateral transmission will still be a commonly-used channel for obtaining information.

When information is transmitted through bilateral channel networks, it is very difficult for intelligence institutions or collection departments to exert primary control over the entire transmission network.

5. Mutual Style.

This is a combination of serial, centralized, ring style and bilateral style channels, as shown in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5 Mutual style transmission channel

[figure shows a pentagon with points A through E counterclockwise at each of five points; additionally, there are straight lines within the pentagon connecting AC, AD, BD, BD, and CE, so that each point is connected with all other points]

A, B, C, D, and E may be information sources, or they may be users, intelligence institutions, collection departments, or intelligence workers or collection workers. The user and the information source are both relative.

This type of transmission method is relatively common in current collection work. The operation of the system is fairly complex, and intelligence departments or collection departments do exert control over the transmission network, and sometimes but not always exert primary control over it.

IV. Categorization Based on Whether the Channel has Social Attributes

Information transmitted through a channel is influenced by a number of different social factors. Thus, it is quite natural to categorize channels based on whether or not it has social attributes.

1. Human Channels.

This type of channel is a social channel. It is characterized by a high degree of reliance on individual persons or groups of persons. At all nodes of the channel or at the primary nodes, it is human beings who control or change the direction, speed, and rate of the information transmission.

Human channels have a long history, and to this day are still the primary channel of transmitting information. The advantage of this channel is its flexibility, resilience, and ease of being directly regulated and controlled by human beings. Moreover, user feedback information is easily obtained. The drawback of human channels is that transmission speed is slow, and the efficiency of network transmission is not high. Furthermore, there is a great deal of interference from social factors. Obviously, human rules and regulations, the quality of personnel and their work styles have a very important impact on the quality of transmission.

In the transmission of secret information, human channels play a critical role.

2. Natural Channels.

This type of channel is a kind of mechanical channel, which is to a large extent free from the influence of individual persons or groups of persons. Examples include telecommunications and optical communications channels. Regulated electrical signal or optical signal information is transmitted over electrical wires, cables, fiber optics, optical cables, or through space.

The appearance of telecommunications channels and optical communications channels marks humankind's entrance into a new historical period in methods of information transmission. In the current age, the development and utilization of database information requires obtaining necessary information from distant places in a timely fashion, making the use of telecommunications channels imperative. The appearance and development of telecommunications channels has brought about a transformation in collection concepts and collection techniques, strengthening people's capability to transmit information.

The greatest advantage of telecommunications channels and optical communications channels is the rapid speed of transmission, which "shrinks" the distance between the information source and the user and collection department. In addition, this type of channel can meet the demands of networked databases linked by computers. The drawback of this type of channel is the difficulty of making timely adjustments to the channel properties based on feedback information.

V. The Complementary Nature of Transmission Channels

Taking information collection work as the point of departure, collection workers establish and develop various types of channels in order to transmit the information from the information source to the user. Although there are many types of channels, each has its strong points and its uses. Typically they are not interchangeable, and can only have a complementary relationship. Thus, when establishing and selecting information transmission channels, collection workers cannot favor one type while overlooking another type, but must establish a complete set for comprehensive operation. For example, direct channels and indirect channels must co-exist for a long period of time. Service relationship channels and economic and administrative relationship channels must be permanently complementary. Only administrative relationship channels may be chosen for collecting information on domestic defense sci-tech planning, as information will not be available through economic relationship channels. For collecting foreign information of a general nature that is not particularly time sensitive, a channel from Chinese library import/export companies or foreign language book stores should be selected. However, for collecting specific, urgent, and even secret information, a channel must be selected that has high transmission speed, is capable of obtaining more, and has high transmission reliability.

Networking is a necessary trend in the establishment of transmission channels, and as a result will certainly strengthen the complementary relationships among channels. Putting emphasis only on the aspect of establishing "serial" and "centralized" transmission channels should gradually be changed.

The lack of information transmission channels, collection systems that have not been integrated into the national system, and the failure to establish scientific collection networks that can be actively controlled is currently the greatest and most pressing problem in sci-tech information collection work. We believe that with the implementation of opening to the outside and domestic revitalization, and with the progress in reforming the sci-tech system, this situation will gradually change.

Section Three -- The Properties of Channels

Usually the following variables can be used to describe or measure transmission channels.

I. The Channel's Transmission Speed

Information is a substance. Thus, whether it is information that the transmitting human being can directly perceive and recognize, or information that the transmitting machine can detect and recognize, it is all a physical process, and the transmission of information requires a certain amount of time. The time required for the information to be transmitted from the information source to the user or the collection department can be used to describe the channel's transmission speed. The smaller the amount of time used, the faster the transmission speed. One article requires several hours, several days, or even several months to be transmitted from the "source" through the channel to the user. It requires several hundredths of a second or several tenths of a second for a group of sound signals to be transmitted from one person through a channel directly to another person. An electrical signal only needs several thousandths of a second or several ten thousandths of a second to be transmitted from the signal source through the telecommunications channel to the receiving terminal. A document imported from abroad often requires six months to a year if it is brought in through a Chinese library import/export company channel. Using one's own channels may only require 2-3 months. Information from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute takes one year to go from publishing to reception, going through Chinese library import/export companies. A direct exchange takes only a few days or a few weeks.

II. The Channel's Transmission Capacity

Optical, audio, and electrical signals must all be transmitted one at a time. Articles can only be sent one at a time as well. For any transmission channel, the amount of information accurately transmitted within a unit of time is referred to as the channel's transmission capacity. The transmission capacity of a channel is limited. Viewed from the perspective of a document user, if the documents are transmitted too quickly or there are too many, the user cannot make selections. With regards to receiving equipment, if signals are transmitted too quickly, the receiver cannot distinguish them. If a person who is a source of verbal information speaks too quickly, the listener cannot hear anything clearly. When too much information comes in order within the unit of time, it exceeds the collection department's ability to select, examine, and accept, and the information piles up and cannot be put to use in a timely fashion.

Transmitting information in the form of books or microfiche is currently still the primary content of collection work. The channels for transmitting these forms of information are social, human channels. Factors that affect transmission speed and transmission capacity, besides the restriction of the features of the channel itself, include many other social and human factors.

Bits/second can be used to express the rate at which a mechanical channel transmits electromagnetic signals. Expressing the rate at which human channels transmit information in the form of books or microfiche is not that simple.

When collecting information, a collection worker must consider the limits of the channel's transmission capacity, and must do his utmost to select the channel with the fastest transmission speed, based on the time requirements for receiving the information, so that the information can be collected as soon as possible and promptly transmitted to the user.

III. The Channel's Breadth of the Spectrum of Specialization

The knowledge content of all information, no matter what form it takes, belongs to a certain specialized category.

Transmission channels have limits relative to the specialization of the information they transmit. A specific channel can only allow information from a certain category of specialization to pass through. This is what is meant by the concept of a channel's breadth of the spectrum of specialization. The larger the range of specialized categories of information that are allowed to pass through, the broader the spectrum of specialization, the converse being narrower.

The spectrum of specialization of channels passing through Chinese library import/export companies is very broad. As long as it is public material, it all passes though, regardless of whether it is natural science, social science, or involves national defense science and technology.

Using channels that pass through institutions of all types stationed abroad, it may be possible, under certain conditions, to transmit public information on the military and national defense science and technology. The spectrum of specialization is fairly broad.

The breadth of the spectrum of specialization of channels established by national business departments depends on what fields they are in contact with.

The range of specialization of information that can be transmitted though the channel of a particular individual is naturally narrower, and is limited by their specialized knowledge and post.

Telecommunications channels are also like this. We can use online methods to collect information on U.S. defense market service companies, but the information collected is only that related to market conditions for weapons worldwide, and not information on other market conditions.

In summary, different transmission channels have different breadths of the spectrum of specialization. When carrying out the collection of information, the appropriate channel must be selected based on the user's requirements for the range of specialization.

Section Four -- Channel Interference and Anti-Interference Measures

Transmission is the process of moving information from the information source to the user. The fundamental requirements for transmission are first reliability, and second high efficiency.

The transmission of information is carried out via channels. Channels can play the role of a transmitter, and at the same time they can play the role of interference or hindrance. As long as information is being transmitted through a channel, interference will necessarily occur. There are many forms and types of interference. Some delay the time of transmission, while other change the direction of transmission, and still others distort the symbols representing the knowledge within the information. In summary, the result of interference is to make the user unable to receive the information, or unable to receive it in a prompt or reliable fashion.

There are many reasons that give rise to interference. Some come from within the channel, such as the organization of collection work, the level and quality of personnel, etc. Others come from outside the channel, such as political factors, social factors, natural factors, etc. While these sources of interference may be controlled or appropriately excluded, it is never possible to eliminate them. The difficulty of combating interference lies in the social attributes of transmission channels. On the one hand, it is very difficult for a collection worker to know for sure that information is being subjected to interference while in the channel, and the extent of the interference. On the other hand, even when he knows, more often than not he can do nothing about it, because the entire transmission process is not under the control of a single collection worker. Thus, it cannot be expected that any channel will function exactly as the user demands. All that can be demanded is that it do the best it can to function satisfactorily.

I. Types of Interference

1. Interference from Crowding.

For a particular channel, if the amount of information transmitted within a unit of time is smaller than the capacity of the channel, then the information can be transmitted normally. If the amount of information transmitted within one unit of time is greater than the capacity of the channel, then interference due to crowding will occur, causing a breakdown in flow or a jam.

2. Distortion Interference.

When information is being transmitted in the channel, distortion of the symbols that represent the knowledge may occur due to interference. This, in turn, affects the amount or fidelity of the knowledge transmitted. This is what is meant by distortion interference.

Some distortion interference arises due to improper work, such as loss of information on a magnetic medium, or coding errors, damage to documents during the transmission process, or missing pages, indistinct copy, etc.

Some distortion interference is intentionally caused by people, such as human interference with electromagnetic wave information, measures adopted for confidentiality, actions taken to further one's own economic benefit, etc. To deal with distortion interference caused by humans, in doing collection work we should rely on the abundant knowledge of intelligence sources and information sources, and examine and distinguish advanced collection technology.

Yet another type of distortion interference is caused by nature or the environment. Examples include the influence of lightning on short-wave signals, the influence of automobiles and electric welding machines on television signals, the influence of weather and storage conditions on books and film, etc.

3. Interference from Time Delay.

In the collection of information, time is of the essence. Factors that influence the normal transmission speed of information in a channel is what is meant by interference from time delay.

Many complex reasons give rise to interference from time delay. They carry strong social attributes, and are intimately connected to entire nation's level of science and technology, management system, and intelligence policies. If one of your clients does not have very stringent demands with regard to the promptness with which information is transmitted, then if the transmission speed is somewhat slow , being a few days or a few months late doesn't matter, and when interference due to time delay arises, no one takes it seriously. Furthermore, both collection departments and end users tend to "cope" with interference due to time delays, turning a blind eye to it, and adopting a see no evil, hear no evil attitude.

Here is a vivid example: in its dealings with our nation, there was something the US National Technical Intelligence Service Office could not understand. When China sent them an order, it was always a batch and never divided into urgent or routine items; all were to be handled as routine. They also felt that China never used modern methods of communication to obtain materials from them. Developed countries are different from us, in that when obtaining materials, urgent cases are handled urgently and slow cases are handled slowly.

Solving the problem of interference due to time delay requires starting from the management of collection work.

4. Directional Interference.

When information moves through the channel it should go from a specified information source to a specified user, and this direction of flow is controlled by people. If some factor causes the information to go away from the specified user, then directional interference has occurred in the transmission.

Occasionally, directional interference arises due to mistakes in publishing, mistakes in ordering, and other errors, and in these cases the interference is easy to eliminate. But the majority of directional interference arises because the collection worker has not done sufficient research on the intelligence source, information source and user. Eliminating this type of interference requires raising the quality of collection personnel and strengthening investigation research.

II. Typical Methods of Combating Interference

An information collection worker should realize that information being transmitted through a channel cannot be completely free from interference, but he should further be aware that anti-interference measures can be taken to control interference and to exclude interference. It can be said that for a collection worker facing a specific user and specific issues, one of his important tasks is to actively exclude interference, and to transmit the information quickly and accurately. The following measures can typically be used to combat interference:

1. Improve the Organizational Work of the Information Collection Department to Reduce Interference Coming from Within Channels.

As mentioned before, one important reason why channels are subjected to interference is that organization work is inadequate. Thus, based on the features of the channel, adjust work organization and work flow at appropriate times, raise the level and capability of collection personnel, and improve work methods and work styles, so as to achieve the goal of "accurate" and "fast" transmission of information. For example, to solve interference from crowding, planning can be improved, and selection work or the rational use of channels can be strengthened. Obviously, raising the recognition of collection work, strengthening leadership of collection work, and adjusting the structure of collection personnel intellectual resources are fundamentally significant to controlling channel interference.

2. Strengthen Existing Transmission Channel Infrastructure and Raise the Channel's Ability to Combat Interference.

Every information collection department has its own collection channels, and in the work of collection they should carry out multi-faceted considerations of the actual situation and summarize each one's reliability, strengths, and shortcomings. It is impractical to demand that every channel be perfect, but by focusing on each one's strengths and cultivating and strengthening them, each one will have its own different features, so that we can use the appropriate one based on the requirements of the actual mission. By targeting their weaknesses, it should be possible to get to the bottom of things, find the reason behind the shortcomings, and take relevant strengthening measures, raising their anti-interference capability to the maximum extent while lowering their shortcomings to the lowest level. An information collection worker should know the features of the existing channels like the back of his own hand and be thoroughly clear about them.

How should one go about strengthening? This may begin from organization, coordination, economics, administration or other aspects, but in any case must be administered comprehensively.

3. Choose Transmission Channels with Relatively High Reliability, Boldly Expanding Their Utilization, and Gradually Perfecting Their Functions in Practice.

One important point here is the issue of "ideas." At present many of our comrades who work with information are greatly influenced by the power of tradition. They learned their work procedures and work methods from the "master" and are not willing to think outside the box. With regard to the work of information collection, one manifestation of this is that wherever the "master" obtained his information is where I obtain information. Whatever channels the "master" used are the channels I use. Even if more reliable channels are discovered, they "stay in a rut" and are unwilling to "try something new," sticking to the same course no matter what. It is impossible to raise the efficiency of collection work by continuing in this way.

We should boldly select channels of higher reliability discovered in practice, and expand their utilization. Sometimes one channel's spectrum of specialization may not be wide enough, and the collection worker must take the initiative to widen it appropriately.

4. Develop New Channels that Are Not Vulnerable to Interference.

For a long time national defense sci-tech intelligence units have collected foreign information, and because they were subject to the limitations of the era, for the most part they used serial channels or centralized channels to carry out the work, and interference from time delay was fairly intense. With opening to the outside taking place, the timely establishment of direct channels under one's own control on the principle of mutuality will reduce the links in the process of collection and speed up information transmission speed, raising the reliability of information transmission.

It is necessary to remind people to keep in mind that as an information collection department, at the same time that collection channels are being established, it is imperative to do the two tasks of keeping a tight grip on user research and intelligence sources and investigating information sources in order to achieve the goal of controlling channels and curbing interference.

5. Differentiate Information Transmission on the Basis of Relative Importance and Relative Urgency.

This is a very effective method collection workers can use to combat interference due to crowding and interference due to time delay.

6. Simultaneous Transmission through Multiple Channels

Under special circumstances, for particularly urgent material, the method of simultaneous transmission through multiple channels may be used. At such times one should not hesitate to add redundancy in exchange for the most reliable method that obtains the most information. Actually, when materials of the same type are sent from the same information source through different channels, some will always be faster, some slower, some arriving earlier and others later. There is a higher economic price for this type of anti-interference measure, and it cannot be used widely.

7. Continually Develop and Apply Modernized Intelligence Techniques.

Promote scientific, modernized collection techniques in order to provide reliable technical support to controlling channel interference.

Section Five -- Channel Confidentiality

Channels are divided into secret and public. The primary control exercised by a collection department or collection worker over a secret channel is most obvious. During the process of transmission, secret information is always surrounded by the conflict between "theft" and "protection." The collection of classified information must follow these principles: Transmission of secret information can only be done through secret channels; in developing secret information transmission channels, the struggle between theft of secrets and resistance against theft of secrets must be kept in mind, and precautionary measures must be taken; demands must be strict and work tight; protect secret transmission channels seriously.

The development and establishment of secret information transmission channels is a policy-intensive, long-term task involving a high level of coordination. During the development period, in addition to paying attention to the issues of "obtaining" and "precautions," deliberate human interference must be recognized and eliminated.

For professional collection workers, the protection of secret information transmission channels is relatively easy to do, but users sometimes lower their guard. Once the information is activated by the user, and the intelligence obtained is utilized, the sci-tech work of the user will yield new results and accomplishments. At this time, some users often consciously or unconsciously reveal secret channels in the course of disseminating or publicizing their achievement, interfering with the normal operation of the channel. Thus, during the process of obtaining and using secret information, collection workers certainly must discharge their duties faithfully, educating the user about publicity in time, and seriously requesting that they do their part to protect the channel and do their work according to the rules. At the same time, collection workers themselves must not casually spread around information concerning the secrecy of a channel.

On to Chapter Seven