9.1 LOGISTICS Endurance UAVs will be supported overall by an Air Logistics Center determined by logistics support analysis (LSA). Individual logistic requirements will be managed by the UAVís WG, who will ensure that Det 1, 12 AF (Global Operations Center), is kept apprised of all logistics issues. This will ensure the status of each UAV system (air vehicle, ground stations, etc.) is centrally tracked, allowing support to JCS tasking.


9.2.1 Basing The endurance UAVs and associated support equipment (SE) must be capable of use worldwide and be fully qualified for mobility. The aircraft will operate from one MOB, and Non-MOBs worldwide. ACC will maintain the capability to deploy Predator, Global Hawk, and DarkStar forces simultaneously, worldwide, with complete sets of support equipment and appropriate maintenance personnel. UAV detachments will not have the resources to provide organic security, transport, theater logistical support, or administrative support. The supported command will provide support to UAV operating locations within their theater of operations.

9.2.2 Weather The endurance UAVs and support equipment may be utilized in climatic extremes ranging from high temperatures in arid regions, through frigid temperatures with associated ice and snow, to tropical climates with high relative humidity and excessive rainfall. Allowances will be built into the endurance UAVs and support equipment to accommodate climatic extremes and prevent immediate and long-term degradation of the equipment (condensation, excessive heating, etc.).

9.2.3 Maintenance Organization The Predator, Global Hawk, and DarkStar will be supported using the maintenance concepts established in ACCI 21-166, Objective Wing Aircraft Maintenance. The organizational structure will be designed to produce appropriate sortie rates in order to meet operational needs. Both military and contractor civilian personnel will operate the system and provide technical expertise and maintenance capability down to the subcomponent level. Levels of Maintenance The air vehicle will be maintained utilizing two level maintenance. These levels are at the organizational field and depot level. The LSA data gathered throughout the design phase will validate the complexity of tasks to be performed at each maintenance level. Organizational Field Level Maintenance The air vehicle will be supported by both on-equipment maintenance at the MOB, Non-MOBs, and all deployed locations as required by LSA. On-Equipment Maintenance On-equipment maintenance will be performed by the sortie production elements within the Operations Group (OG).The sortie support elements within the Logistics Group (LG) will provide support beyond the capability of the OG. Fault isolation within the palletized sensor and avionics systems, data links, electrical and environmental systems will be accomplished by using built-in-test (BIT) and verified technical data to isolate the faulty line replaceable units (LRU). There will be no calibration or alignment of the equipment at this level. On equipment maintenance will involve accomplishment of both scheduled and unscheduled aircraft maintenance actions to include: Installed system operational checks. Fault isolation to the LRU or associated component/wiring. Removal and replacement of faulty LRUs. Maintenance of associated aircraft wiring/components. Aircraft periodic/phase/special inspection and replacement of time change items. Compliance with applicable platform TCTOís. Off Equipment Maintenance UAV deployability and two level maintenance will make the traditional back shop off equipment function obsolete. However, some traditional off equipment functions will be transferred to the organizational function. The tasks that transfer will be performed by the sortie production element on the flightline with provided support equipment. Most repair will be isolation to, and removal and replacement of the LRU (Note: an LRU may be a circuit card or any easily replaceable component). Fault isolation will be performed using support equipment (SE), BIT, and verified technical data. The following LRU/SRU repair tasks shall be accomplished at this level: Verify suspected LRU malfunction. Isolate malfunction to an SRU or an LRU chassis mounted components. Replace or repair faulty LSRUs. Verify repair by same methods used to verify fault. Properly dispose of removed LSRUs on components. Accomplish applicable service bulletins. Perform required inspections or calibrations. Operate and maintain associated support equipment. Depot-Level Maintenance Depot maintenance is that maintenance beyond the capabilities and/or facilities of the field. It will consist of verifying the SRU and LRU faults, isolation and repair of piece part(s), verification of repair, and return of serviceable units to inventory.


9.3.1 Availability Operational availability is defined as the probability that equipment, when used under stated conditions in an actual support environment, will operate as required at any time. System availability is predicted on platform availability requirements as outlined in the applicable requirement documents. Reliability System reliability is defined as the probability the system will perform its intended function for a specified period of time under stated conditions. Current planning establishes system reliability requirements in support of system availability. Mean time between failure will be collected and analyzed as part of the LSA process. Maintainability System maintainability is defined as the technique dedicated to limiting downtime and support requirements. Accessibility to LRUs, components, and wiring will be optimized for the system. Modular design, replaceable assemblies, and strategically placed test points will be emphasized in support of the mean down time goal which supports system availability. Mean time to repair data will be collected and analyzed as part of the LSA process.

9.3.2 Mission Completion Success Probability (MCSP) MCSP data will be collected and analyzed as part of the LSA process.

9.3.3 Maintenance Personnel Requirements The Predator, Global Hawk, and DarkStar, support equipment, and subsystems will be maintained using existing Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC). Results of LSA studies will be used to determine manning requirements and extent of contractor logistics support (CLS) (see Para. 3.12 for initial manpower estimates).


9.4.1 Repair Location On-equipment maintenance will be performed at the MOBs, and at Non-MOBs and all deployed locations as required by LSA. Depot level maintenance will be performed at the appropriate location determined by LSA.

9.4.2 Data Collection Maintenance data will be collected utilizing the Core Automated Maintenance System (CAMS). Material Deficiency Reports (MDRs) will be submitted IAW T.O. 00-35-54. Mission Capable (MICAP) requisitions reporting is required and will be established for the vehicle and SE by the System Program Office. Work unit codes (WUC) and standard reporting designators (SRD) will be established by the system program office and included in the LSA process.

9.4.3 Failure Diagnostic Techniques The air vehicle will utilize continuous, initiated, and maintenance BIT capabilities to detect hardware and software faults. The use of BIT retry techniques to prevent false alarms will be used when appropriate. Operational test programs will also be required to perform self-tests, collect and store system and subsystem faults, and provide pre-/post-flight diagnostics. BIT will be capable of 95% fault isolation to the defective SRU. Additional manual procedures will also be developed and incorporated into technical data to ensure 100% fault isolation and repair of the system and associated SE. On-Equipment On-equipment fault isolation to the LRU will be accomplished on the air vehicle or system using UAV systems BIT and verified technical data.

9.4.4 Support Equipment SE will be designed for automatic/semiautomatic operation with BIT features to indicate operational status. BIT must be capable of 95% percent fault isolation to the defective SRU, 100% when supplemented by technical data. Manual procedures will also be developed and incorporated into technical data to allow fault isolation and repair of UAV, sub-systems and the SE. The combination of automatic/semiautomatic and manual procedures will provide sustained maintenance capability to field units in all situations. Design of all SE/SE containers must be IAW military specifications with lifting provision for forklift/hoist (as required), wheels, protection, etc., to fully qualify the SE for worldwide mobility. Flight Line Test Equipment Flight line test equipment will be held to an absolute minimum by use of installed system BIT. When required, flight line test equipment will be of minimum size, weight, and complexity needed to verify system operational status and fault isolation. Support Equipment Spares The SE will incorporate confidence standards as installed equipment Repair of common SE at deployed locations is unfeasible. Replacement items of selected common SE must be available to sustain maintenance capabilities during contingencies. Calibration The theater receiving vehicle/equipment will be responsible for providing on-site calibration support for deployed units. Calibration of support equipment will be accomplished at the MOB by Precision Measurement Equipment Lab (PMEL) Specialists. Calibration intervals will not be less than 180 days.

9.4.5 Corrosion Control Corrosion control will be accomplished IAW applicable directives at all echelons of maintenance.

9.4.6 System Safety System safety procedures, operations, maintenance will be IAW current Air Force directives.

9.4.7 Ground Support Operations Access to installed LRUs shall not require the use of special tools nor the removal of other LRUs. SE must be capable of operation when powered from aircraft ground power units, auxiliary power units, or common power sources available in a field environment. Internal and external cooling and power sources must be capable of providing cooling and power necessary for all ground support scenarios.

9.4.8 Technical Data LSA results will determine technical data requirements. All technical data will be developed during the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase of the Predator, Global Hawk, and DarkStar. Technical data will provide comprehensive maintenance instructions suitable for all echelons of maintenance, be available for use concurrent with the first vehicle and system production, and be revised as a result of deficiencies and requirements as required.

9.4.9 Packaging, Handling, Storage, and Transportation (PHS&T) All packaging of system components and SE will be fully qualified for worldwide deployment. Hazardous materials that are required to be moved as part of, or in support of, the system or air vehicles will be identified. Special handling/storage; i.e., shock and fragility limits, security classification, size limitations, environmental limitations, and requirements; will be identified. Design of all SE/SE containers will be IAW MILITARY SPECIFICATION and will allow forklift/hoist use, as required. CAD/PAD Items. Standard Air Force procedures will be developed for the transport of any CAD/PAD required items.

9.4.10 Training. Training Training should be structured to provide comprehensive on-equipment repair procedures for the air vehicle, LRUs, and associated SE, and include detailed theory of operation for hardware and software components.

9.4.11 Inspection Requirements Scheduled maintenance of the installed equipment shall be limited to visual inspections for assessment of equipment condition and security. All maintenance other than these visual or "look" inspections shall be done on a "condition change" basis.

9.5 MAINTENANCE CONCEPT Suggested changes to this UAV maintenance concept should be addressed to HQ ACC/LGRR, DSN 574-4984.

9.6 SUPPLY SUPPORT The Endurance UAVs (E-UAV), (associated support equipment (SE) and spares must be capable of worldwide use and be fully qualified for mobility. ACC will maintain the capability to deploy Predator, Global Hawk, and DarkStar, forces simultaneously worldwide with complete sets of support equipment, spares, and appropriate contractor or organic supply personnel. As E-UAV systems are acquired, they may be comprised of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems. CLS supported COTS items will not be maintained on the SBSS. A preplanned, negotiated, and traceable hands-off of the COTS LRU from the military customer to the commercial representative for transfer to the Defense Transportation System must occur to ensure forward deployed OCONUS LRUs sent in for repair or replacement are returned to the deployed OCONUS unit. ACCís goal is not to institute multiple, separate, and/or unique supply support processes for COTS systems. The goal is to integrate commercial supply "know-how" and worldwide resource availability into a standardized process to meet our unique mission requirements. ACC must have a maintenance data collection process in place for COTS.

9.6.1 INTERIM CONTRACTOR SUPPORT (ICS) ICS supply support can be used for these systems until an analysis is conducted by the program manager, supporting command, and ACC to determine the appropriate long term support. The ICS contractor team would be required to support theater and home station requirements as called for by this document. Contractors may be tasked to meet an Operational Availability rate and System Effectiveness level through use of a 30 day Readiness Spares Package at each MOB or deployed location. The contractor will also provide all consumables to support peacetime and wartime operations.

9.6.2 SPARES The E-UAV systems are required to have a sufficient amount of spare parts in order to minimize down time due to maintenance.

9.6.3 SUPPORT EQUIPMENT SE authorizations will be documented in the appropriate allowance document in sufficient quantities to support the MOB and Non-MOBís as determined by AFMC/ACC.

9.6.4 PETROLEUM, OILS, AND LUBRICANTS (POLS) The supported command will supply all POL required for UAV detachment operations. Requirements will include standard MOGAS, 100 Low Lead Blue AVGAS (Predator), diesel, and any special fuel required by the Global Hawk, and DarkStar.

9.6.5 THEATER REQUIREMENTS The gaining command will provide all unique support to the operating environment that is not included in the E-UAV deployment package. Ammunition UAV Detachments will not deploy with ammunition unless directed in movement orders. The supported command will issue ammunition as required. Hazardous Materials The supported commander will provide storage facilities for hazardous material associated with UAV operations. Those include lithium batteries and any explosive charges used for UAV recovery systems.