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This chapter discusses the organization and mission of to PSYOP and the support PSYOP give the IEW system. PSYOP units. It addresses the IEW support MI provides
PSYOP missions are planned products and psychological
actions in peace or war that are directed toward foreign enemy,
friendly, and neutral audiences. The purpose is to influence attitudes
and behaviors to achieve national political and military objectives.
PSYOP support varied military, political, and
diplomatic actions across the operational continuum. These missions
can be strategic, operational, or tactical missions.
Any of the above categories of PSYOP may support
more than one level of the operational continuum. That is why
distinctions between the categories of PSYOP are often blurred.
SOF, whether operating unilaterally or in cooperation
with conventional forces across the entire operational continuum,
must always consider nonmilitary factors and objectives. PSYOP
Army PSYOP missions are conducted by specifically
organized and trained units. The majority of PSYOP forces are
in the US Army Reserve. Figure 7-1
shows a type of RC PSYOP group (POG).
The 4th PSYOP Group (Airborne) (POG(A)) is
the only Army AC POG. It--
The 4th POG(A) provisional task organization,
as shown in Figure 7-2, consists of
a group HHC, three regionally oriented battalions, one tactical
support battalion, and one PSYOP dissemination battalion.
The 4th POG(A) is normally assigned to the AC of the unified command,
but may be assigned as the joint PSYOP task force on the unified
command. It may be designated as the senior PSYOP headquarters
over US RC POGs or allied elements at EAC.
PSYOP units use and produce all-source intelligence.
PSYOP units need timely intelligence to achieve its objectives.
This means the PSYOP SIO must maintain continuous coordination
with the supporting S2, G2, or J2.
The S2 staff elements of the PSYOP battalion
or POG are small. Each PSYOP unit's actual production and collection
assets are located elsewhere in the unit. In PSYOP battalions,
companies, and detachments that operate independently or in support
of other forces, the SIO is usually the S2 or the chief of that
unit's PDC. In these situations, the PDC S2 establishes the same
type relations with the supporting IEW S2 as those normally established
between PSYOP and the supported or supporting S2s.
The PSYOP SIO--
PSYOP units have many specialized organic intelligence
production and collection capabilities. For example, loudspeaker
teams have linguists who can interview HUMINT sources. These assets
are located in the PDC, audiovisual (AV) platoons, and foreign
broadcast monitoring elements of the PSYOP unit.
Each battalion PDC contains threat analysis
and counter-propaganda teams. The threat team--
The counter-propaganda team conducts analysis
of threat and neutral products in order to assess their impact
and aid in developing counter-products.
The threat and counter-propaganda teams use
attached and organic interrogators to collect information on political,
social, and other PSYOP requirements. This information is often
key to campaign assessment and product development. These teams
also coordinate PSYOP collection requirements with MI interrogation
elements collocated at EPW collection points and holding facilities
throughout the theater of operations.
Other collection assets consist of the AV platoons
and radio monitoring elements. The AV platoons are primarily tactical
product development and dissemination elements. However, due to
their proximity to the local populace and threat forces, they
have a secondary mission to collect information on the local situation
when disseminating activities. Information gathered by these teams
is generally local and tactical in nature. It is used and transmitted
in the same way information gathered by the interrogators or ground
surveillance radar (GSR) teams is used and transmitted.
Some PSYOP units have radio monitoring elements.
Elements of these teams conduct surveys, interviews,
and panels to collect PSYOP intelligence. These activities are
different from tactical intelligence collection because they use
techniques developed for market analysis and sociological research
as well as HUMINT techniques. The goal is to obtain information
on attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and social organizations.
Since the PSYOP producer must anticipate that
its products will be subjected to analysis, intelligence on the
opposing PSYOP threat will also be needed. This intelligence will
come from a combination of OB, MDCI analysis, and PSYOP data bases.
PSYOP can also provide intelligence of use
to MDCI analysis and deception planning elements. This intelligence
would usually concern sociological prejudices or predilections
of a targeted force that could be manipulated or capitalized upon
by the deception effort.
PSYOP units collect most of the unclassified
and some of the classified information they need themselves. PSYOP
units get the rest of the intelligence and information they need
through IEW channels.
The type of intelligence needed by PSYOP units
depends on the echelon, area of responsibility, and mission of
the supported command.
The SOC J2 primarily is concerned with in-theater
IEW policy formulation, planning, and coordination. The SOC J2--
The SOC J6 coordinates to obtain secure SCI
voice and data communications between the headquarters of the
SOC, its component commands, and the TASOSC.
The TASOSC DOI provides all-source IEW support
to all in-theater ARSOF. Complying with guidance from the SOC
J2, the DOI validates, consolidates, and prioritizes standing
and routine IR and RIIs. He then forwards them to the TASOSC ISE
collocated at the theater army MI brigade's EACIC.
Under the staff supervision of the TASOSC DOI,
OPORDs, OPLANs, campaign plans, and supporting
PSYOP and intelligence annexes contain specific PSYOP intelligence
requirements. Most of these requirements are validated and incorporated
into PSYOP and IEW collection plans. (See FM 34-1,
Appendix H; and FM 34-2, Appendix A.)
In order to meet some of these requirements,
SIOs may need to reinforce or refocus available IEW assets. Often,
the PSYOP or IEW SIO needs to enter the IEW system to access information
or intelligence from other CS units; intelligence agencies; or
sources at lower, adjacent, and higher echelons or national level.
Figure 7-3 shows examples of sources
that support PSYOP.
These units and agencies have extensive contact
with, or knowledge of, the target audience. They also may have
a complete data base onhand and a collection framework in place
with intelligence requirements already developed and tasked. Proper
coordination for use or access to these IEW assets saves time
and assets, as well as potentially producing significant intelligence
to support PSYOP.
There are primarily five intelligence disciplines
which significantly support PSYOP.
The objective of PSYOP is to influence humans.
The attitudes and beliefs of the target audience are, therefore,
important. The most effective source for this information is HUMINT.
HUMINT is collected using a variety of methods.
PSYOP units use HUMINT developed from controlled
collection, CI operations, interrogations, debriefings, and from
other defensive or offensive HUMINT operations. To support PSYOP,
HUMINT must be timely and accurate.
IEW intelligence and information gathered from
EPWs, defectors, line crossers, and captured diaries often provide
PSYOP intelligence elements with significant insights into the
psychological situation in a specific area or within a target
group. With consent and proper authority, these defectors, crews,
and line crossers may also be used to develop PSYOP products.
These same sources are also valuable when testing or pre-testing
Interrogation support for PSYOP units is available
from the supported command's MI brigade or tactical exploitation
battalion. Otherwise, interrogators are collocated at EPW collection
points and holding facilities at echelons, divisions, and above.
Interrogation information then is incorporated into the all-source
product. When PSYOP units need information for mission planning
that only interrogators might provide, they must coordinate their
requirements with the command that has interrogators.
SIGINT is developed from the collection, evaluation,
analysis, integration, and interpretation of information derived
from intercepted electromagnetic emissions. SIGINT subdivisions
include COMINT, ELINT, and FISINT. By integrating SIGINT with
intelligence from other resources, accurate targeting and threat
data can be obtained.
SIGINT assets support PSYOP by providing SIGINT
and EW products extracted from locating, monitoring, and transcribing
threat communications and by intercepting noncommunications emitters.
EW assets support PSYOP by locating and jamming threat PSYOP transmitters.
These assets provide information and intelligence that help reveal
enemy activities or plans so that PSYOP can develop effective
SIGINT support for planning PSYOP missions
is available from the supported command's MI brigade. The type
of support needed depends on the operational factors in the operational
IMINT comes from radar, photographic, infrared,
and electro-optic imagery.
PSYOP analysts use IMINT in varied ways. IMINT
helps locate and determine the capabilities and operational status
of transmitters or printing plants. PSYOP analysts also use IMINT
to locate mobile target groups.
By analyzing imagery of the spatial location
and architecture of key structures, PSYOP analysts can determine
the ethnic or religious make-up of a town or village. Other uses
for IMINT products include identifying and evaluating operational
capabilities of transportation networks, factories, and other
public structures or systems.
PSYOP analysts use IMINT to confirm or deny
acts of rioting, acts of sabotage, demonstrations, and work slow-downs
that are either the original PSYOP objective or an impact indicator
of a PSYOP campaign or specific product.
IMINT tasking is done through either FRAGO
or intelligence annexes to the OPORD, SOP, or RII. Formats to
request support from national systems are in the J-TENS Manual,
Sections 3,4, and 5; and FM 34-2, Appendix
C. IMINT systems controlled by a higher headquarters, other services,
or national agencies respond to approved RIIs through appropriate
The channels used depend on the requesting
unit and the requirements, the agency receiving the request, and
command procedures. Corps and division assets can provide IMINT
when the target area falls within the range of their organic systems.
Other services and national assets also can be tasked to provide
dedicated IMINT support to SOF operations.
TECHINT consists of S&TI and battlefield
TECHINT. TECHINT provides PSYOP personnel with intelligence about
foreign technological developments and the performance and operational
capabilities of foreign materiel. Battlefield TECHINT provides
the tactical commander with countermeasures to neutralize and
defeat enemy systems and materiel.
PSYOP units can use TECHINT to focus their
efforts on critical, highly technical threat units and installations.
TECHINT products are produced by the CMEC or
a battlefield TECHINT team at corps. TECHINT is incorporated into
the all-source intelligence product. Specific requests for TECHINT
support are coordinated through the SOC J2 to corps headquarters
CI detects, evaluates, counteracts, or prevents
foreign intelligence collection, subversion, sabotage, and terrorism.
It determines security vulnerabilities and recommends countermeasures.
CI operations support OPSEC, deception, and force protection.
In CONUS, the security division, USASOC, conducts
liaison with US and foreign intelligence and law enforcement agencies
as appropriate. This liaison is an important element of CI support
to PSYOP. CI supports OPSEC by providing MDCI information and
products, such as the MDCI appendix to PSYOP OPLANs and OPORDs.
Additional CI support is obtained from the CONUS CI group as required.
Upon deployment, CI support is obtained from the appropriate theater
MI brigade. For additional information on CI and HUMINT, see FM 34-60
and FM 34-60A.
Many PSYOP missions are affected by weather.
This makes weather a critical aspect of mission planning.
PSYOP media may be degraded by severe weather.
Severe weather may enhance PSYOP campaigns if it affects threat
morale. PSYOP units therefore need advanced notice of approaching
weather systems. Weather support required includes--
PSYOP units with a proper DMA map account may
obtain MC&G products direct from the DMA Combat Support Center,
the appropriate installation map depot, or the supporting OCONUS
Army map depot, USASOC assists units to obtain special MC&G
products and services.
PSYOP units also produce specialized intelligence
products to support a variety of other combat and IEW missions
and operations. PSYOP units develop these intelligence products
by monitoring and assessing situations and evaluating their impact
on specified target groups and national objectives. Finally, this
information is combined with additional research on specific target
The primary focus of this production effort
is on socio-economic, political, and diplomatic factors. It also
focuses on the military aspects of a region, situation, or group.
These products include, but are not limited to--
While these products are used primarily by
PSYOP units to conduct their operations, they also contain information
and intelligence that is useful to the ARSOF IEW community and
other SOF. These products contain diverse information on social
customs, enemy morale, and important locations.