Director of Central Intelligence
The 2001 Annual Report
United States Intelligence Community
Message from the DCI
Support to National Policy
Support to Military Operations
Support to Law Enforcement
Support to Countering Foreign Intelligence
A. Intelligence Community Structure
DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE
On behalf of the President, I am pleased to forward The 2001 Annual Report of the United States Intelligence Community.
The events of fiscal year 2001 place it among the most challenging for the US Intelligence Community since its establishment. With the support of the President, the Congress, and the American people, we continue to provide intelligence to our national leadership far superior to that of any of our adversaries, thus giving our leaders a unique advantage in their conduct of foreign, economic, and military affairs.
We are in a new threat environment. Policymakers expect accurate, timely and otherwise unobtainable "secret" information on a wider variety of difficult national security issues than ever before. Intelligence targets today are more complex, diverse, and dispersed around the globe and our adversaries are increasingly sophisticated at concealing their activities. In addition to the deadly threat of terrorism, we continue to face such challenges as weapons proliferation, highly volatile regional conflicts, international crime and narcotics trafficking, and a host of other threats to our freedoms and security.
The catastrophic events of 11 September 2001 crystallized the dangers we face as a nation and added new urgency to our work in the Intelligence Community. Terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are not new; we have been warning of the threat they pose for many years. But now our country has resolved to do whatever it takes to prevent future attacks and win the war on terrorism. To support this effort, the Community is marshalling all of its human and technical resources to enable the President to protect America’s interests at home and abroad. At the end of fiscal year 2001, and with the help of the President and the Congress, we have reallocated human, technical, and financial resources to bolster the nation’s fight against terrorism. We are employing advanced technologies to collect and analyze the data we gather, and we are bringing the best minds in America together to attack our most challenging intelligence problems.
I am proud of the contributions the men and women of the Intelligence Community have made in protecting our national security and appreciate the opportunity to share their contributions with Congress and the public.
George J. Tenet
This report fulfills the legal requirement for an annual report as stated in the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Section 109 (a) of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended.
(1) Not later than January 31 each year, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the requirements of the United States for intelligence and the activities of the Intelligence Community.
(2) The purpose of the report is to facilitate an assessment of the activities of the Intelligence Community during the preceding fiscal year and to assist in the development of a mission and a budget for the Intelligence Community for the fiscal year beginning in the year in which the report is submitted.
(3) The report shall be submitted in unclassified form but may include a classified annex.
The DCI’s FY2001 Annual Report of the Intelligence Community provides insight into the activities and accomplishments of the Intelligence Community (IC). The mission of the Intelligence Community is to provide policymakers, military commanders, and law enforcement officials with timely, accurate intelligence on a wide range of national security issues. Within this context, sources and methods must be protected. Therefore, this report acknowledges only a few of the total contributions made by the men and women of the Intelligence Community.
This report, which is unclassified, addresses accomplishments of the Intelligence Community measured against the national security missions. A Classified Annex to the Annual Report provides additional detail and is provided to the Congressional Intelligence, Appropriations, and Armed Services Committees.
State of the US Intelligence Community 1
Foreign intelligence is an essential component of statecraft. Knowledge of the world around us is the prelude to decision and action in the formulation of foreign policy, diplomatic relations, treaty monitoring, and in the conduct of military operations. Intelligence includes the collection of data—both openly available and that denied us by our adversaries—and its analysis to enable the nation’s political leaders, civil servants, and military commanders to anticipate events, consider alternatives, and take decisive action.
Today, US Intelligence is strong, agile, and more capable than at any time in its history, yet not infallible or omnipresent. The diversity of the national security challenges we face poses unique problems for us as a nation and for the Intelligence Community in particular. At the outset of fiscal year 2001 we were witnessing growing regional conflict in South Asia, stability in the Balkans, and heightened tensions with China. By the end of 2001, our focus had shifted and alliances were renewed as the nation went to war against global terrorists and the states that sponsor them.
Fiscal year 2001 began with the continuation of a decade-long budget decline for US intelligence. New sources and methods—often requiring large investments in cutting edge technology—were not financed; personnel costs continued to rise, driven by the aging of our work force and growing retirement costs; and our infrastructure, such as our aging information technology systems, began to break. Through tough budget trade-offs, new business practices and strong management, we managed to provide superior intelligence for the government. The FY01 Budget Supplemental, however, began the process of addressing the most critical Intelligence Community needs.
Increased Intelligence Community collaboration has been the key to our overall success in times of constrained resources, and over the past year it has reached unprecedented levels. Intelligence collected from the efforts of a variety of agencies is more readily integrated for processing, analysis, and dissemination. Consumers have access to more finished products derived from multiple sources through secure websites than ever before, and we are establishing links with a broad set of new customers, ensuring that they receive the intelligence they need, while protecting our tradecraft and sensitive intelligence sources. We also are cooperating extensively with foreign liaison services to increase our capabilities against terrorist and other intelligence targets.
The Intelligence Community faces a number of challenges, both substantive and administrative. During FY 2001, with the help of the Congress and the White House, we have undergone many reviews of our activities and capabilities. 2 Our understanding of the substantive challenge ahead of us is quite good and we have begun to make investments in our capabilities against these threats with our FY 2003 budget submission. These include:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Homeland Defense. A variety of adversaries increasingly will target the US Homeland. The United States is likely to remain the dominant world power, and America will be viewed with a mix of admiration, envy, and sometimes hatred. The IC must be able to disseminate information to policymakers to forestall attacks and, if such efforts are unsuccessful, to provide the information needed to mitigate the effects of the attacks.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Precision Warfare. Military threats will be quantitatively and qualitatively different. US involvement in overseas contingencies on very short notice will require flexibility. Precision in identifying enemy targets, providing safe ingress and egress routes for our military forces, neutralizing enemy detection and weapons systems, and minimizing or even eliminating collateral damage are important components of US military strategy.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Crisis Warning and Prevention. Warning of global crises will continue to be more difficult because of the scope and complexity of requirements and the speed of events. The need for intelligence information and sophisticated analysis to anticipate and avert foreign crises and immediate support to day-to-day or minute-to-minute activities will be an ongoing challenge.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Preventing Technological Surprise. Revolutionary information technology capabilities will be available to friend and foe alike. The IC will have to provide accurate assessments of the scientific and technical capabilities of foreign nations and groups.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Protecting Intelligence Capabilities. Adversaries will use new, highly effective means to detect and neutralize sensitive clandestine operations or technically sophisticated collection devices. Because of growing government and industry reliance on satellites, these systems and their supporting infrastructures increasingly will become potential high-value targets. Traditional intelligence collection techniques will be the subject of even greater public and hence hostile foreign awareness. We must adopt new systems and methods to protect our collection, exploitation, and analytic capabilities.
The success of the Community in the years ahead will depend on the extent to which we leverage technology, manage our resources, invest in our people, collaborate across agency lines, merge databases, and streamline management. The administrative challenges that face us in conducting global intelligence gathering and analysis are also well understood. Many of our needed investments in this area will be addressed through the supplemental funds provided to the Community in FY 2002 and with the additional funding for intelligence proposed by the President in FY 2003. Chief among these challenges are:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Maintaining a World-Class Work Force: Continuing to recruit and maintain a work force with the skills and commitment to accomplish the mission. As a significant portion of our work force becomes eligible to retire over the next decade, we must ensure that we maintain the critical capabilities that are required to carry out our collection and production missions.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Embracing the Information Technology Revolution: Taking full advantage of innovations in information technology and keeping pace with new data handling and storage techniques. In addition, we are increasing our efforts to protect our information systems from cyber attack and compromise by adversaries who view the information technology explosion as both an opportunity and challenge.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Innovating and Investing in New Sources and Methods: Pushing beyond our successes of the past fifty years and developing innovative collection capabilities—whether in space, the air, on the ground and sub-surface—will be critical to our future success. Efficiently acquiring these systems, secretly so that our adversaries will not develop countermeasures, is also key to our success.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Enhancing Human Source Intelligence: Broadening and making more robust our in-depth coverage into areas that might support terrorism activities and potential hot spots around the world, before they become crises, is critical to providing strategic warning. Improving our ability to evaluate quickly and disseminate credible information will be key in the future.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Strengthening our Infrastructure: The Intelligence Community infrastructure needs modernizing to better cope with tomorrow’s threats. Many of our facilities need improvements to accommodate modern technology. Our collectors and analysts need better and broader band connectivity. New tools are needed to meet new challenges. For example, NSA has already begun “re-tooling” itself to deal with future challenges. This strengthening of our infrastructure will be an enormous undertaking at which we must succeed.
(1) The Intelligence Community (IC) is composed of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), The Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR), as well as the intelligence units of the Departments of Treasury, Justice, and Energy and the intelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. The intelligence element of the Coast Guard was added by Congress in 2002.
(2) Among the reviews conducted during FY 2001 include those by the NIMA Commission, the Space Commission, the Quadrennial Intelligence Community Review (QICR), and the President's Review of Intelligence as tasked by National Security Presidential Directive – 5.
Support to National Policy
We're on a mission to say to the rest of the world, come with us—come with us, stand by our side to defeat the evildoers of freedom, as we know it.
President George W. Bush
Address to the Intelligence Community
George Bush Center for Intelligence
26 September 2001
Support to national policy includes: daily briefings to the President, his senior advisors, and his Cabinet members; ad hoc situation reports throughout the day on late-breaking events; and long-term strategic analyses in the form of National Intelligence Estimates as well as other long-term analyses produced by the National Intelligence Council with input from IC-wide analytic organizations. Examples of such analyses include: the foreign ballistic missile threat to the United States; challenges to monitoring conventional weapons treaties; implications of tensions between India and Pakistan; and growing global migration and its implications for the United States. Daily reporting on a wide variety of national intelligence issues is distributed through the Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, which is produced by CIA with support from other analytic production agencies.
The Intelligence Community's Support to National Policy mission contains six components: Strategic Warning, Diplomacy, Arms Control and Treaty Monitoring, Combating Proliferation, Promoting Trade and Economic Security, and Promoting Civil and Environmental Stability.
The Intelligence Community warns senior officials of changing threats to the United States, potential attacks against the United States and its interests around the world, impending actions against our allies, and other foreign crises. By providing strategic warning that is both persuasive and timely, the Community tries to give the decisionmaker and military commander enough time to either avert a crisis or be prepared to effectively deal with it. Over the past year, IC analysts supported policymakers on such issues as terrorism; global and regional, political, economic, and military concerns; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD); and narcotrafficking.
During FY 2001 the Intelligence Community supported the strategic warning mission area by provided the following:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>In-depth intelligence support to the in-coming Administration, such as customized daily intelligence reporting to the new President and his senior national security advisers.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Wide-ranging, substantive intelligence briefings to Congressional Committees of both Houses as well as individual Members of Congress.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Detailed and timely coverage of events on the downing of the P-3 in China and the surrounding diplomatic efforts to secure the return of the American military personnel involved in the incident.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Strategic warning of terrorist threats to the United States, our allies, and other interests around the world.
<![if !supportLists]>- <![endif]>Over the years the Intelligence Community has provided consistent reporting and warning on possible terrorist attacks against the United States and its interests abroad. Prior to the attacks against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, warnings of unspecified attacks were provided to senior policymakers through daily reporting.
<![if !supportLists]>- <![endif]>In the aftermath of the 11 September attacks, Community analysts frequently briefed senior Administration and Congressional officials on immediate developments. The Community also provided long-range strategic assessments, current intelligence briefs, and operational support to consumers involved in the conduct of foreign policy, military actions, law enforcement, and homeland security.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Timely intelligence and expert analysis on developments relating to strategic warning for the Secretary of State, our ambassadors abroad, and senior Department of State officers.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Comprehensive coverage of threats to our deployed military forces abroad and analysis on key developments in the areas of responsibilities of our military commanders.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Critical information on indications and warning of foreign threats and intentions of foreign states with respect to political, economic, social, and environmental issues.
The Intelligence Community's support to US diplomatic efforts is quite broad. It uses its in-depth knowledge of countries and regions to aid international negotiations of all kinds and help US negotiators to understand whether and how their agreements can be verified and monitored. For example, in April 2001, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR, which is an element of the Intelligence Community) coordinated a Community effort in support of the Key West peace talks on Nagorno-Karabakh. Secretary Powell personally opened the negotiations between Armenian President Kocharian and Azerbaijani President Aliyev. INR and NIMA worked closely to prepare a menu of computerized mapping options as well as a video fly-through of the area. (See figure 1.)
The Intelligence Community provides our diplomatic corps with invaluable information on negotiating approaches and tactics.
Figure 1—Preventing Conflict:
Key West Talks on Nagorno-Karabakh
The IC developed its Support to Diplomacy Plan to help focus and guide our activities. Other efforts in this mission area include:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The production by the National Intelligence Council in December 2000 of a special unclassified publication, Global Trends 2015: A Dialogue About the Future With Nongovernment Experts.
<![if !supportLists]>- <![endif]>The report, which was based on extensive consultation with nongovernment experts, outlined key drivers that will affect the world in the year 2015: demographic trends, natural resources and the environment, science and technology, the global economy and globalization, national and international governance, the changing nature of future conflict, and the role of the United States.
<![if !supportLists]>- <![endif]>The Global Trends study received widespread international attention and prompted discussions between foreign government officials and US government officials on ways to approach the challenges and opportunities outlined in the report.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR organized and conducted 101 conferences in FY 2001 on topics of foreign policy interest. The conferences brought together 800 speakers and close to 5,000 attendees from across the government. This service provides important outreach and incorporates outside expertise into the Intelligence Community from the academic and other nongovernment communities.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>An interagency effort spearheaded by INR developed and provided a comprehensive geographical information system for agencies involved in relief and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The Joint Intelligence Center of the US Pacific Command (JICPAC) provided comprehensive intelligence to US policymakers during the presidential transition in Indonesia. Throughout the past year, JICPAC analysts continued to provide tailored intelligence to UN-sponsored Australian-led peace enforcement operations in East Timor.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA analysts produced detailed intelligence on foreign nations' attitudes about the impact of the US intention to build a new strategic framework that included a missile defense. Analysts provided frequent support to policymakers to help them identify the positions of foreign nations and place them in context.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA's support to senior Defense policymakers was instrumental in shaping US policy during the transition of the new Administration and in supporting preparations for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.
Arms Control and Treaty Monitoring
The Intelligence Community analyzed the programs and plans of declared or threshold nuclear weapons states regarding development, maintenance, and operational capabilities of strategic weapons and delivery systems. We also monitored compliance with bilateral and multilateral treaties and conventions to which the United States is party, including START, the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Biological Weapons Convention. The Community also provided policymakers with all-source analyses on transfers of advanced conventional weapons and technologies and on arms control agreements. In particular:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR provided in-depth analytic support for arms control and proliferation talks with Russia.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA supported the efforts of various agencies to help form a new strategy for curtailing nuclear, missile, and conventional arms cooperation among countries presenting threats.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA performed assessments of weapons stockpiles in specific foreign nations that provided significant new insight into arms transfers and their potential use by terrorists.
The Intelligence Community carefully monitored foreign entities that continued to provide other countries with technology and expertise applicable to chemical, biological, nuclear, and ballistic and cruise missile projects as well as key foreign suppliers of missile-related technologies. We also provided expertise and analyses that were used by US officials to monitor Iraqi compliance with UN Security Council resolutions, assess the military impact of satellite technology transfers, and support nonproliferation negotiations with North Korea. In addition to these efforts, particular agencies performed the following:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA led the Defense Intelligence Community's portal efforts. Their on-line "information space" provided focused timely intelligence on nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological weapons, affording DoD customers seamless access to vital intelligence topics.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR supported senior Department of State policy officials with analyses on the development of weapons of mass destruction. In addition, INR coordinated the IC's cleared use of intelligence for diplomatic demarches to combat proliferation.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DOE performed detailed analyses of the potential of weapons-related proliferations and environmental threats posed by foreign naval energy sources.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA analysts supported US efforts to work with Moscow to curb arms technology transfers to threat nations.
Promoting Economic Security
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The NIC, as part of its continuing effort to highlight the implications for the United States of transnational trends, produced a National Intelligence Estimate on the economic and political impact of growing global migration patterns. This Estimate was a more detailed follow-on study to Global Trends 2015, which identified migration as one of several key drivers of the changing security environment.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The NIC highlighted for policymakers over the last year the growing economic weaknesses in key countries. Working with IC analysts and outside experts, NIC Estimates and other papers identified key risks for these countries and addressed policymaker concerns about the potential broader impact.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA's Office of Transnational Issues as well as the Strategic Assessments Group kept policymakers apprised of the outlook for the global economy, potential financial crises, threats to food security, and energy developments.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR provided policymakers detailed assessments on country views and negotiating postures on outstanding trade issues in the WTO, particularly concerning the establishment of a new round of trade negotiations and accession of new members to the WTO as well as on a variety of bilateral trade disputes.
Promoting Civil and Environmental Stability
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Agencies provided policymakers with analyses of issues such as humanitarian relief, refugees, environmental change, and human rights.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The NIC published a special unclassified report, Global Humanitarian Emergencies: Trends and Projections, 2001-2002 , which assessed the prospects for ongoing humanitarian emergencies resulting from manmade causes and major natural disasters and the likelihood of new emergencies. The report enabled policymakers and military planners to prepare to respond to calls for US humanitarian assistance throughout the world.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The NIC highlighted key dynamics in the US war on terrorism in the immediate aftermath of 11 September regarding the humanitarian situation in Afghanistan as well as the political dynamics within the United Nations. The NIC, in collaboration with Community partners, pulled together experts on Afghanistan from within the Intelligence Community and beyond to assess the key aid gaps and the capacity for the UN, NGOs, and key states to respond.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR continued to produce the highly regarded Environment and Sustainable Development Review for US policymakers.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Various agencies continued to provide information to support the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. This information has contributed directly to indictments and prosecutions, including the conviction of General Krstic for genocide in connection with the events in Srebrenicia.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>NIMA and the Department of State joined forces to provide geospatial and imagery data for humanitarian relief projects.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>In response to the Philippine Presidential crisis on 19 January, FBIS maintained extended coverage of the Philippines throughout the next few days until former President Estrada peacefully stepped down and Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>In supporting other national needs, NIMA was successful in finding the missing NASA MARS Polar Lander (MPL) on Mars. NASA requested NIMA's involvement after communications with the MPL could not be re-established following its entry into the Martian atmosphere. NIMA's painstaking analysis of the MPL landing area, covering 667 kilometers, resulted in the MPL being found.
Support to Military Operations
One of the highest priorities for intelligence support to military operations is ensuring that military commanders receive timely information required to successfully execute their combat missions, while minimizing the loss of American lives. The Community provides the military with a wide array of support, ranging from an encyclopedia of basic information on military forces, logistics, climate and terrain, to precise targeting information and battle damage assessments (BDA). In support of long-term planning, the IC provides the US military with assessments based on all-source analyses on future force dispositions, capabilities, and intentions of foreign militaries. We also assess the capabilities of current and anticipated weapon systems of potential opponents. Such information is needed to prevent technological surprise and to ensure the technological superiority of US military equipment.
The Intelligence Community's Support to Military Operations is categorized into five components: Indications and Warning; Force Protection; Force Modernization; Operational/Campaign Planning/Execution; and Training and Readiness.
Indications and Warning
US military forces depend on accurate and timely intelligence to prepare and respond to threats and potential crises. Such intelligence may involve reporting a threat to US or allied military forces, tracking hostile activities, or furnishing insight into an adversary's intentions. All the intelligence collection disciplines and all-source analysis contribute to indications and warning for US military forces. For example:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Throughout the year, the DCI Warning Committee monitored and published biweekly and monthly lists of developments that could pose a serious threat or challenge to US interests as well as in-depth examination of these developments.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>JICPAC developed an indications and warning matrix for the Intelligence Community that provided analysts with greater clarity in assessing the China-Taiwan problem.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The DIA/J2 Deputy Director for Crisis Management disseminated worldwide I&W intelligence via warning reports and WATCHCON change reports.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The Noble Eagle Intelligence Task Force was established to collect data that will satisfy current intelligence production for combating terrorism and supporting the war effort.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA deployed a computer web-based, collaborative common virtual workspace that provided secure dissemination of both raw and finished intelligence, to military commands and selected US government agencies. This capability provided timely I&W of terrorists' actions against US forces.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA established the Joint Intelligence Task Force–Combating Terrorism (JITF-CT) to provide enhanced analysis and production to support worldwide efforts to counter terrorism. JITF-CT analysts produced daily assessments of possible terrorist threats to DoD personnel, facilities, and interests.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA's Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC) provided deployed US ground force commanders with detailed analyses of foreign environmental hazards, health conditions, and infectious disease risks. NIMA provided US Air Force units with imagery-based assessments of environmental hazards at various worldwide deployment locations.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>AFMIC provided medical intelligence that enabled US forces to avoid or limit the incidence of infectious diseases during overseas deployments. Moreover, extensive work on the medical facilities portion of the Modernized Integrated Data Base lowered the probability for unintended collateral damage to medical facilities from air and missile strikes in preparation for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) provided tailored support to US Pacific Command for sensitive US-Chinese negotiations during the Navy EP-3 incident in April 2001. Also, JICPAC prepared threat assessments regarding the resumption of flights after the incident.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA analysts deployed overseas in support of US forces and US military commands in the Persian Gulf, providing timely support to force protection.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>To maintain US technological superiority, the Intelligence Community provides military planners with detailed information and analyses of the capabilities and vulnerabilities of foreign state-of-the-art and developmental weapons systems.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Each intelligence production center of the military services—the National Ground Intelligence Center, National Air Intelligence Center, and the Office of Naval Intelligence/National Maritime Intelligence Center—acquired foreign material for exploitation. Analysis of such material provided a basis for the development of effective countermeasures and tactics to protect US forces and their warfighting equipment.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The Air Force's Air Intelligence Agency ensured that all combat aircrews and campaign planners of all services were kept apprised of the capabilities of adversaries by analyzing and evaluating the operational tactics of foreign air and ground-based air defense forces.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA's analysis of new explosives and propellants helped to mobilize DoD research and testing on high-energy materials and volume-controlled munitions. A series of Military Intelligence Digest articles and briefings to senior officials resulted in a review of the US energetic materials technology base.
The IC provides significant operational support to deployed military forces engaged in counterterrorism and other missions. Immediately following the 11 September terrorist attacks against the United States, the Intelligence Community surged to support US and allied military operations against Usama Bin Ladin's al-Qa'ida terrorist group in Afghanistan and the Afghan Taliban regime that provided the al-Qa'ida sanctuary.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA convened the Military Intelligence Board (MIB), with participants from all nine Unified Commands, JCS/J2, the Service intelligence chiefs, CIA, National Security Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, US Coast Guard, OSD, and FBI, to organize support for US Central Command in preparation for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. All support issues were addressed rapidly by the MIB.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA's Joint Intelligence Task Force—Combating Terrorism provided extensive targeting intelligence support in preparation for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA deployed a valuable counterterrorism web-centric collaborative tool. It has since been available worldwide around the clock to those with appropriate access and has been used by both warfighters and targeteers.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA printed more than 75,000 copies of country handbooks on Afghanistan for forces preparing to deploy for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM and disseminated geospatial operational support packages for tactical operations in Afghanistan. These packages help military planners track and monitor potential escape routes of al-Qa'ida leaders. Numerous products were disseminated to other government agencies and partners in preparation for the war on terrorism.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>A NIMA Support Team provided on-the-scene support to the National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC), Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in the immediate aftermath of the 11 September attack on the Pentagon.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The US Strategic Command's Joint Intelligence Center (STRATJIC) set up an around-the-clock intelligence task force last August and executed DoD's first application of the groundbreaking Crisis Intelligence Federation Concept of Operations. Because of procedures developed by the STRATJIC, the task force was able to transition immediately from its original purpose of supporting a military operation in Korea to preparing to support Operation ENDURING FREEDOM in Afghanistan.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA analysts provided senior policymakers with analysis on Islamic fundamentalism in Central Asia. CIA helped senior policymakers gauge and maintain Allied political and military support for the war in Afghanistan.
Training and Readiness
In addition to indications and warning and support during crises and ongoing operations, military customers—to enhance their training and to ensure readiness—require a wealth of basic information on matters including transportation, communications, infrastructure, government and politics, military order-of-battle, doctrine and strategy, and geospatial information.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Noting the growing importance of commercial imagery, NIMA hosted a three-day Commercial Imagery Conference to familiarize users with purchasing and exploiting commercial imagery and to share applications.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) expanded the Open Source Information System (OSIS) to more military commands and military users, providing them greater access to open source material.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>NSA has increased its efforts toward full integration with deployed military forces, senior military planners, and military intelligence analysts at every level. Integration requires direct participation in deliberate and crisis cryptologic planning to support operations, exercises and joint training. As a result of the Director of NSA's SIGINT transformation initiative, NSA is continuing to improve the readiness of the United States Cryptologic System and the military customers it serves.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA provided counterterrorism analysis training through the Mobile Counterterrorism Analysis Course for students at the Joint Analysis Center at Molesworth in the UK and at US Central Command.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA's Defense Intelligence College established the Joint Intelligence Virtual University to ensure the continuation of a highly competent cadre of military and civilian intelligence professionals. This virtual university offers more than 100 intelligence courses available at the desktop to all intelligence personnel through the Sensitive Compartmented Information communications network. This self-paced, computer-based intelligence training has proven to be a cost-effective way of acquiring the skills needed for current and future challenges.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>In addition, DIA created new online intelligence course material for topics such as battle damage assessment (BDA) and began a comprehensive online learning catalog for all Intelligence Community elements. The Joint Forces Intelligence Command's mobile training teams were extended to the Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center.
Support to Law Enforcement
Organized crime, drug trafficking, and terrorist acts are no longer insular, distinct activities that can be contained and eradicated through traditional enforcement. Instead, they are integrated activities which through their very commission have a reverberating impact on our national interests.
Steven C. McCraw, Deputy Assistant Director,
Investigative Service Division, FBI.
FBI statement for the record to the
House Judiciary Committee, 13 December 2000.
The globalization of financial markets, communications networks, and information systems enables international terrorists, narcotics traffickers, alien smugglers, money launderers, and other criminals to form cooperative relationships irrespective of geographic boundaries. International criminal enterprises move vast sums of illicitly derived money through the world's financial systems. They buy and sell narcotics and arms and smuggle aliens, nuclear materials, and WMD.
The Intelligence Community developed its Support to Law Enforcement Plan to help guide and focus IC activities in this area. Focused support to law enforcement agencies and national policymakers requires the IC to provide intelligence on terrorism, narcotics, and international organized crime.
The Intelligence Community gathers information on any foreign terrorist activity aimed at US persons or interests as part of a well-coordinated use of diplomatic, intelligence, law enforcement, and military assets. The FBI has lead responsibility for investigating and preventing violent acts as well as other criminal activities of international terrorists and their organizations within the United States.
Key activities include:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The TIPOFF program, managed by INR, is an all-source database containing biographic and derogatory information and backup source documentation associated with some 68,000 suspected terrorists and international organized crime figures. TIPOFF alerted consular officers at US Embassies and Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) officers at ports of entry to potential terrorists, including possible al-Qa'ida operatives trying to enter the United States; as a result, numerous terrorists and organized crime figures were blocked from entry into the country in FY2001.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>NIMA created special graphics for the Secret Service in support of the 43rd Presidential Inauguration Ceremony. The graphics were a combination of imagery and geospatial data over important areas of Washington, DC. The information displayed included checkpoints, venues, and parade routes. NIMA teams worked around the clock to update the progress of the parade and protestor and police movements onto an "event map" monitored by the Presidential Inaugural Committee Headquarters' Joint Interagency Intelligence Support Element.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The FBI's Counterterrorism Threat Assessment and Warning Unit coordinated the preparation of threat assessments for such events as the Super Bowl and the Winter Olympics. Each threat assessment included a discussion of the threats to US information systems, a rating of potential terrorism threats associated with special events, and a discussion of recent terrorism trends.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>JICPAC engaged in detailed mission planning support for possible actions against terrorist groups within US Pacific Command's area of operations. This process required close coordination with national and theater intelligence agencies and the correlation of thousands of reports to highlight areas of interest to operators and mission planners.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The DCI's Counterterrorism Center (CTC) has been working with US Law Enforcement both overseas and domestically. In the immediate wake of the 11 September attacks, such activities have intensified. Domestically, CTC is working with other intelligence offices and the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Forces to coordinate the flow of intelligence in order to address all domestic threats, "take the war off of US soil," and to facilitate overseas operations in the war effort.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>NIMA coordinated immediate crisis imagery requirements following the terrorist attacks on 11 September. In support of civil agencies, NIMA quickly assessed the damage at the World Trade Center complex, the Pentagon, and the United Airlines Flight 98 debris site in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Within hours of the attacks, an imagery-derived damage assessment delineating ash and debris fallout from the collapse of structures at the WTC complex was provided to FEMA. NIMA sent analysts to FEMA's deployed field office in New York City to provide remote sensing expertise. FEMA officials stated that NIMA greatly assisted search and rescue efforts at the WTC complex.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>NIMA created several city photomaps, which are a new product for use by the Joint Forces Command for its Homeland Defense Mission. Additionally, the city photomaps have been used by other military customers for planning and educational purposes.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>AFOSI provided full-time support to 10 FBI Joint Terrorism Task Forces in major metropolitan areas immediately following the attacks. AFOSI's aggressive investigative efforts identified numerous items of interest to the investigation and identified threats to DoD resources and activities.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Immediately after the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, DOE identified a number of capabilities as well as expertise that could be used to assist with the rescue and recovery operations at the World Trade Center and, where needed, assist with coordinating the utilization of these assets. Technical experts and equipment capable of detecting motion and locating cellphones were deployed to the WTC site.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR intelligence analysts drafted and/or coordinated on terrorist threat advisories to overseas posts where reporting indicated a serious, near-term possibility of attack.
Law enforcement agencies depend on foreign intelligence information to disrupt or dismantle transshipment activities and decrease the quantity of foreign cultivation, production, and distribution of illegal drugs destined for use in the United States.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA provided focused intelligence support to Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) assets in Mexico City and to Mexican counter-drug forces. This intelligence played a major role in the positioning of operational forces to interdict the movement of illegal drugs to the United States and directly contributed to the arrest of two major drug traffickers.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA followed up its first-ever global accounting of cocaine production, seizures, and consumption data with research on other global accounting for heroin. CIA analysts provided illicit narcotics cultivation and production estimates that served as key inputs for the President's annual narcotics certification decisions.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>FBIS provided daily counternarcotics reports to law enforcement customers on the activities of drug cartels in Colombia and Mexico.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>NSA information provided to the DCI's Crime and Narcotics Center contributed to the disruption or dismantlement of major foreign narco-trafficking organizations.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>INR analysts used Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies to integrate counter-narcotics field operation information related to Plan Colombia (e.g., eradication spraying areas, locations of raided coca labs, hostile fire on aircraft, etc.) into maps for analysis and briefings. (See figure 2.)
Countering International Organized Crime
The DCI's Crime and Narcotics Center (CNC) is the IC's focal point for collection, analysis, and operations against international organized crime.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>CIA provided US representatives to the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) with the names of countries to "name and shame" for having inadequate money-laundering controls. Analysts identified specific countries as candidates for FATF censure; ultimately, most of these countries improved money-laundering statutes.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Via reporting to the CNC, NSA provided US policymakers with valuable foreign intelligence on transnational illicit activities related to the 9/11 attacks.
Support to Countering Foreign Intelligence
I have nothing but contempt and anger for those who betray the trust by exposing the names of our sources. They are, in my view, the most insidious of traitors.
President George H. W. Bush
Dedication ceremony for the George Bush Center
for Intelligence, 26 April 1999
Global trends and the unparalleled access to technology and information by hostile intelligence organizations have contributed to the increasing complexity of the counterintelligence mission. The Intelligence Community conducts counterintelligence activities to protect the political, economic, and military interests of the United States. It also seeks to protect the technology of US business and industry from foreign espionage. A new nonstate component complicates our task, as terrorist and criminal groups also try to penetrate US intelligence agencies and to obtain protected information. Thus, the IC is expanding its capabilities to monitor the activities of both state and nonstate intelligence services and entities that pose threats to US operations, installations, personnel, and economic and technological information.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX) was established on 1 May 2001 by PDD-75 to serve as the substantive leader of national-level counterintelligence and to coordinate and support the critical counterintelligence missions of the United States Government. Standing up the NCIX was an important step toward improving protection of our critical national assets against 21st Century threats.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>A decade-long Army counterintelligence investigation culminated in the arrest, trial, and conviction of George Trofimoff. Mr. Trofimoff was sentenced to life in prison for espionage.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Through extensive analytical and investigative efforts, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) Counterintelligence Staff identified an individual suspected of conspiracy to commit espionage. The subject, Patrick Regan, a retired US Air Force non-commissioned officer who had previously been assigned to the NRO, was arrested by the FBI.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Collaboration and cooperation among IC agencies to warn against potential foreign computer network attacks increased in FY 2001. More joint products and activities, such as integrated threat warnings, countermeasures, targeting assessments, and threat and trend analyses, were made available to a wide range of customers.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The IC conducted computer intrusion investigations addressing the attempts of foreign countries, groups, and individuals to gain access to US systems. The results of these investigations were disseminated throughout the Community to support development of new means and measures to protect classified information and clandestine operations.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>IC agencies continued efforts to develop and deploy robust and unique security systems for the protection of their people and facilities. Training in CI and related disciplines has been made available to Community personnel via new, interactive, desktop courses. In addition to improving training of CI specialists in new tradecraft methods, the IC stepped up efforts to recruit more agents to gain access to information of concern.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DIA established a counterintelligence analytic cell at the National Military Joint Intelligence Center focused on counterintelligence. CI analysis was incorporated into the Daily Intelligence Briefing for the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), and has been used to inform US policymakers and counterintelligence planners.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Eagle Watch, a web-based threat reporting system, was created by the Air Force during FY2001. The system generates reports within two hours of receipt of information covering the gamut of law enforcement and counterintelligence, to include suspicious incidents, potential surveillance of Air Force installations and activities, and other possible indications of Foreign Intelligence Service or terrorist activity.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Shortly after the 11 September attacks, the AFOSI established the Combined Analytical Support Element (CASE) to institutionalize a more robust and timely mechanism for the receipt, analysis, and reporting of threat information to Air Force and DoD commanders and senior leadership.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DoD with the assistance of AFOSI is building a new automated system to identify and track foreign visitors to military facilities and analyze the threat posed by them. The architecture will combine unclassified and classified systems and require data entry at all military installations that will feed a centralized analytical database.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The Department of Energy's Counterintelligence Evaluation Program successfully evaluated nearly 4,000 individuals who required access to special DOE programs. Also, the program's increased effort in the liaison area resulted in the routine acquisition of sensitive source material by the US Customs Service, the Department of Treasury, and the Department of Justice. The program further produced several country threat summaries and in-depth country threat assessments used to brief laboratory personnel who interact with sensitive country foreign nationals both overseas and in the United States.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>DOE's Counterintelligence Investigations Program supported FBI counterintelligence investigations involving DOE and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) personnel, facilities, programs, or information. The program provided technical experts to evaluate information developed by the FBI relating to weapons of mass destruction and other areas within the technical expertise of DOE/NNSA. The program also worked to uncover unauthorized foreign contacts and to provide counterintelligence coverage for nuclear facilities that fall under both the Navy and DOE.
At the end of FY 2001, with the events of 11 September, Operations ENDURING FREEDOM and NOBLE EAGLE, the Intelligence Community re-allocated a substantial portion of the IC's analysis and production work force to support military operations directly. To remedy resulting shortfalls, the Community has begun implementing the following:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Expanding commercial partnerships with industry to provide geospatial products and information needed to better support military operations.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Expanding contacts with the academic community.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Hiring additional analysts, both all source and single INT.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Hiring contractors to help improve productivity by filling key research and production support positions, thus freeing analysts to focus on core intelligence missions.
The number of hostile actors, their technological sophistication, and their willingness to act against US interests is large and growing. Within the context of risk management and investment strategy supporting high-priority requirements, we are developing a more agile intelligence enterprise that can respond to rapidly shifting intelligence priorities.
The next few years will see a convergence of technologies that will enable the Intelligence Community to reform its business practices. We are focusing on a more aggressive advanced research and development strategy against the most intractable intelligence problems and are encouraging risk-taking that promises significant payoff if successful. To achieve breakthroughs in science and technology, we are enlisting the assistance of the nation's best scientific and technical talent.
We recognize that providing solutions to our collection challenges requires significant changes in the way in which we acquire and manage both our human and technical collection systems. We are charting a course to converge collection requirements, data, and processes into a multi-faceted strategy for more timely and relevant intelligence support to policymakers and the military. We will continue to strengthen the IC through more innovative collection strategies and more efficient collection operations.
The Community's ongoing movement toward a more collaborative way of doing business requires substantial changes to its current information systems environment. The IC is developing an architecture to improve mission effectiveness through improved electronic connectivity while protecting information from unauthorized access. One of the IC's greatest challenges in this arena will be developing information solutions for sharing the appropriate intelligence among local, state, and federal agencies working homeland defense issues. We have taken an important step in this direction with the extension of INTELINK and improved liaison.
ACIS Arms Control Intelligence Staff ADCI/AP Assistant DCI for Analysis and Production ADCI/C Assistant DCI for Collection AFOSI Air Force Office of Special Investigations
Bomb Damage Assessment
CI Counterintelligence CIA Central Intelligence Agency CJCS Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff CNC Crime and Narcotics Center COE Corps of Engineers CMO
Central MASINT Organization
DCI Director, Central Intelligence DDCI/CM Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management D&D Denial and Deception DEA Drug Enforcement Agency DIA Defense Intelligence Agency DoD
Department of Defense
Environmental Protection Agency
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FBIS Foreign Broadcast Information Service FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FIS
Foreign Intelligence Service
Geographic Information System
IC Intelligence Community IIR Intelligence Information Report IMINT Imagery Intelligence INR Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State INS Immigration and Naturalization Service I&W
Indications and Warning
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JCS/J2 Director of Intelligence, Joint Chiefs of Staff JDA Japanese Defense Agency JICPAC US Pacific Command's Joint Intelligence Center JITF-CT Joint Intelligence Task Force—Combating Terrorism JMIP
Joint Military Intelligence Program
MASINT Measurement and Signatures Intelligence MIB Military Intelligence Board MRB
Mission Requirements Board
NCIS Naval Criminal Investigative Service NCIX National Counterintelligence Executive NIC National Intelligence Council NICB National Intelligence Collection Board NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency NIPB National Intelligence Production Board NMJIC National Military Joint Intelligence Center NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration NRO National Reconnaissance Office NSA National Security Agency NSC
National Security Council
ODDCI/CM Office of the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management OSIC Ocean Surveillance Imagery Collection OSINT Open Source Intelligence OSIS
Open Source Information System
SAE Senior Acquisition Executive SIGINT Signals Intelligence STRATJIC
US Strategic Command's Joint Intelligence Center
United States Geological Survey
WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction WTO World Trade Organization