FAS | Intelligence | World Agencies | Para-States ||||| Search |

Basque Fatherland and Liberty
Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)
Euskal Herritarrok
Herri Batasuna


Founded in 1959 with the aim of establishing an independent homeland based on Marxist principles encompassing the Spanish Basque provinces of Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, Alava, as well as the autonomous region of Navarra, and the southwestern French Departments of Labourd, Basse-Navarra, and Soule. Recent Spanish counterterrorism initiatives are hampering the groupís operational capabilities. Spanish police arrested 125 ETA members and accomplices in 2003; French authorities arrested 46, including the groupís top leadership; several other members were arrested in Latin America, Germany, and the Netherlands. In March 2003, a Spanish Supreme Court ruling banned ETAís political wing, Batasuna. Spain currently holds 572 ETA members in prison, while France holds 124.


Primarily involved in bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government officials, security and military forces, politicians, and judicial figures. During the summer of 2003, ETA targeted Spanish tourist areas. In 2003, ETA killed three persons, a similar figure to 2002ís death toll of five, and wounded dozens more. The group has killed more than 850 persons and injured hundreds of others since it began lethal attacks in the early 1960s. ETA finances its activities primarily through extortion and robbery.


Unknown; hundreds of members, plus supporters.

Location/Area of Operation

Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern Spain and southwestern France, but also has bombed Spanish and French interests elsewhere.

External Aid

Has received training at various times in the past in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua. Some ETA members allegedly have received sanctuary in Cuba while others reside in South America.


FAS | Intelligence | World Agencies | Para-States ||||| Search |

Created by John Pike
Maintained by Steven Aftergood
Updated May 3, 2004