Anti-Semitism as a Corollary of Anti-Zionism: A Basic Tenet of Hizballah Ideology by Esther Webman A relatively new phenomenon on the Lebanese political scene, Hizballah ("the Party of God") has gained world-wide attention during the last ten years because of its terrorist activity, its radical ideology, and its unique relationship with the Islamic Republic of Iran. This article focuses on one aspect of Hizballah's outlook - its attitude toward Israel, Zionism and Judaism, examines its centrality in the movement's overall ideology, strategy and behaviour, and explores its development in the context of the Shi'te religious resurgence in Lebanon. The Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982 and the continued presence of Israel in Lebanon played a prominent role in bringing Hizballah to the forefront of Lebanese politics, and contributed to the organization's intense preoccupation with the existence, nature, purpose and future prospects of the State of Israel. Hizballah's total negation of Israel's existence is, on the face of it, a natural extension of its negation of the West, especially the US, inasmuch as Israel is perceived as a tool to realize American interests in the region. However, this negation based on Islamic precepts portraying Judaism as the oldest and bitterest adversary of Islam and intertwined with anti-Semitic motifs, taken mainly from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeyni's preachings and rhetoric, turns into a basic tenet in the movement's general Islamic plan. It appears therefore, that the line distinguishing between anti-Zionism the delegitimization of Israel's right to exist - and anti-Semitism - a primordial hatred of the Jews - is becoming increasingly difficult to define. Hizballah's attitude toward Israel and the Jews, entrenched as it is in the movement's overall philosophy, predicates that the way to a new Lebanon and Islamic revival passes through Jerusalem. Notwithstanding, it should be emphasized from the outset that despite its anti-Semitic motifs, this attitude is not the most significant tenet of Hizballah philosophy. Besides drawing from general publications as well as academic studies of Hizballah, this article is based on primary sources such as Arabic news papers and radio broadcasts, in particular al-Muntalaq, the monthly organ of the Islamic Lebanese Students' Organization which serves as an ideological platform for Hizballah, and al-Ahd, a weekly newspaper, both published in Beirut. The Shi'is in Lebanon Lebanese society and the Lebanese confessional political system were based on a delicate balance between disparate groups brought together under the French Mandate in the 1920's and later in the territorial state that became independent in 1941. This entity consisted of enclaves inhabited by Maronites, Sunni Muslims, Druze, Greek Orthodox and Shi'i Muslims in the Biqa' Valley and southern Lebanon. The social and political balance embodied in the constitution of 1926, stipulated by the French, and in the national covenant of 1943 was designed to hold these groups together through proportional representation in parliament, in political office and in the civil service. The gradual collapse, of this balance after independence, led to instability and eventually to unrest and civil war. This confessional system, whose abolition is one of Hizballah's main objectives, was blamed by the movement for the continuous injustice suffered by the Shi'i community in Lebanon over the years. At the time of the establishment of the Lebanese state, the Shi'i community was the third largest in size; today it is considered the largest community, numbering approximately 1.3 million. From the outset it suffered certain distinct disadvantages relative to other communities: socioeconomic backwardness, a distrusted feudal political leadership, and an attitude of indifference on the part of the government. Growing social tension in the Lebanese Shi'i community over the years converged with a change in the self-perception of Shi'ism from the 1960's onwards, when its doctrine shifted from passivity to activism. This process culminated in the Iranian revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeyni, which strove there-after to expand beyond its territorial limits and penetrate all Islamic schools of thought. It is against this background that Hizballah emerged in the early 1980's as an indigenous Shi'i movement inspired by the Islamic revolution in Iran which arose as a reaction to adverse local conditions. Sheikh Musa al-Sadr The origins of Shi'i activism in Lebanon go back to the early 1960's, shortly after the arrival in Lebanon in 1959 of a young cleric, Sheikh Musa al- Sadr, who paved the way for changes that were to sweep through the Lebanese Shi'i community. Sadr, a disciple of the new Shi'i activism emanating from Najaf and Qom (the two Shi'i religious centers, in Iraq and Iran respectively), started preaching this creed shortly after his arrival. He gradually gained influence in the Shi'i community and in the Lebanese political scene in general. The first substantial sign of the success of his efforts was the formation by him of the Supreme Islamic Shi'i Council in 1967, which he has headed since 1969. This was followed in the 1970's by the establishment of the first Shi'i political movement - the Movement of the Disinherited (Harakat al-Mahrumin) - a grass-roots movement of social and political protest. By mid-1974, this movement had developed into a military organization - Amal, an acronym for Afwaj al- Muqawama al-Lubnaniyya (Lebanese Resistance Brigades), as well as a word which means "hope" in Arabic. Sadr headed Amal until his mysterious disappearance in August 1978 while traveling to Libya. Sadr sought to bring about change in the Shi'i community through an evolutionary process of reform of the existing Lebanese political system. He attacked the left, which was gaining support among young Shi'is, as well as the established socio-political order, using radical rhetoric and appealing directly to the masses. As a Shi'i cleric he had a considerable advantage over leaders of other political trends, granted a high degree of legitimacy by the Shi'i masses. His political agenda stemmed from his interpretation of faith. "Faith", as one Arab historian explained, "was not about ritual, but about social concerns... Religion was not something that had to be quarantined and kept pure by stem guardians; it could be made to address modem needs. Thus, the man of religion, Rajul al-Din, need not hide and solely concern himself with old books and rituals," but should "bring back religion into the social and political realm." Sadr's disappearance in 1978 wreaked havoc in the ranks of Amal. With no other figure to fill the leadership gap, personal rivalries and ideological disagreements eventually divided Amal into two distinct groups: a secular one, headed by Nabih Beri, and an increasingly more religiously radical one - al- Amal al-Islami - headed by Husayn al- Musawi, both claiming to faithfully represent Sadr's legacy. Sadr, elevated to the position of a hidden imam whose return is anticipated, in accordance with traditional Shi'i belief, still formally occupies the chairmanship of the Supreme Islamic Shi'i Council and still symbolizes the Shi'i awakening in Lebanon. Thus, the emergence of Hizballah in 1982 was a natural development resulting from the "convergence of Lebanese Shi'i interests with Iranian foreign policy orientations," according to one scholar. The Emergence of Hizballah Hizballah is a radical Lebanese Islamic resistance movement whose ideology combines a strong social message with a universal political goal and an Islamic mission, to be realized by revolutionary means, i.e., jihad. Within a few years, Hizballah attained moral and military hegemony in the Lebanese Shi'i community, and more recently it has striven to achieve legitimization in Lebanese society at large in order to fulfill its objectives. The name "Hizballah", is taken from a Qur'anic verse, and means the "Party of God", reflecting the way the movement perceives itself. "We in Lebanon," it states in an open letter regarded as its ideological platform, "are not a closed organizational party nor a narrow political framework. Rather, we are a nation tied to the Muslims in every part of the world by a strong ideological and political bond, namely Islam." The name symbolizes both the broad identity which Hizballah seeks, and the application of Khomeyni's ideal of replacing the Western concept of the nation-state by a "hizballah", which would unite the entire Islamic community of believers (umma) under the leadership of the jurisprudent (wilayat al-faqih), who is the supreme religious authority. Theoretically, every Muslim is by definition a member of Hizballah, but in fact the movements adherents are mainly Lebanese Shi'is. Three major events played a key role in mobilizing the resistance movement and radicalizing the Shi'i community: the disappearance of Sadr, the Israeli invasions of Lebanon in 1978 and 1982, and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The last event, in particular, helped "heighten the political consciousness of the Shi'ite community of Lebanon", according to one researcher, and gave it a source of identity that "transcended national borders." Hizballah started to operate in 1982 in the aftermath of the Israeli invasion in June of that year, receiving help from Iranian Revolutionary Guards (Pasdaran) sent to Lebanon as part of Iran's attempt to export the Islamic revolution. This force had arrived in Lebanon earlier to train and indoctrinate Lebanese Shi'is. Hizballah began as a loose network of military, political and social groupings, an arrangement that was later to lead to internal tactical controversy. Nevertheless, the movement developed into a well-organized political entity with broad popular support. It is run by a consultative council (shura) of 12 led by a secretary-general, with seven operational departments in charge of diplomatic, military, social, intelligence and information activities. Most of the major decisions are made by the council collectively and approved by Iran. Strict internal discipline is imposed on the rank and file, who are expected to accept clerical guidance in every aspect of life unquestionably, in accordance with Shi'i tradition. Establishing itself initially in the Biqa' Valley, mainly around the city of Ba'albak where the Iranian Revolutionary Guards were stationed, Hizballah soon moved into other areas heavily populated by Shi'is - West Beirut and the south. In 1984 it took control of West Beirut, pushing aside Amal, and after the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in 1985 began challenging Amal's strongholds in southern Lebanon through a combination of violence, intimidation and indoctrination as well as investment in developing various social welfare services. Militarily, it was initially organized in small clandestine units, but these gradually turned into well-paid semi-regular military forces. Today Hizballah maintains command centers, training bases and a military force of approximately 5,000 fighters (mujahidun). Iran's backing and the Iranian presence in Lebanon played a crucial role in the emergence of Hizballah and continues to be its major supporter. Iran provided financial support, military training and a well-defined set of politico-religious beliefs, reinforcing the movement with zeal and with the experience of proven success. Hizballah's Ideological Tenets Hizballah assimilated the doctrine of the Islamic Republic of Iran totally and pledged allegiance to its leader, Ayatollah Khomeyni, and his heir, 'Ali Khamaneh'i. The basic tenet of this doctrine is that Islam is a political and social doctrine akin to Marxism or any other Western ideology, going "beyond ethnic and regional orders and [offering] the best alternative to solve people's problems." Hizballah's ideology emphasizes the Qur'anic origins of its political terminology, with its messages deriving first and foremost from Shi'i themes and symbols, although it tries to conceal its Shi'i leanings. Hizballah's ideology is constructed in a series of circles: the inner circle - the oppressed Lebanese Shi'i community - proceeding outward to the Lebanese society at large, the entire Islamic world, and the oppressed everywhere in the world. It has both short-term and long-term objectives, which can be summarized as follows: 1. The abolishment of the confessional system in Lebanon and the transformation of the country into an Islamic state with justice, equality, peace and security for all through the application of the Islamic legal code (Shari'a); 2. Resistance to nationalism, imperialism and Western arrogance and the liberation of all oppressed Muslim peoples; 3. Bringing about Islamic unity in order to transform Islam into a universal power and establish Islamic rule; and 4. Negation of Israel, and the liberation of Jerusalem and Palestine. The spirit of this ideology is reflected in the movement's emblem, which features a raised arm bearing a rifle against the background of the globe, with the slogan "The Party of God is Sure to Triumph" on top, and the motto "The Islamic Revolution in Lebanon" at the bottom. The Demonization of Israel The liberation of Jerusalem and Palestine is perceived by Hizballah as a major strategic target, essential for achieving Shi'i liberation in Lebanon as well as for the realization of the ultimate goal: worldwide Islamic rule. The conflict with Israel and the Jews is a total life-or-death war, integral to three broader conflicts: 1. the conflict between "the arrogants of the world" (mustakbirin) and "the downtrodden of the world" (mustadafin); 2. the cultural struggle between the West and the Islamic world; 3 the historical struggle between Judaism and Islam. Israel is depicted as the product of Western imperialism and Western arrogance in the context of the conflict between the West and the Islamic world. The West, perceived as the source of all evil, installed Israel in the region in order to continue dominating it and exploiting its resources. Israel, then, is the source of all evil and violence in the Middle East and an obstacle in the way of Islamic unity, and it must therefore be eradicated. The representation of Israel as a Western tool, foreign to the region, constitutes a major theme in the writings, sermons and speeches of Hizballah leaders and spokesmen, which are disseminated in the movement's press and broadcast on their radio stations. It is also explicitly expressed in Hizballah's platform. Israel is depicted as an "American spearhead" in the Islamic world, "the ulcerous growth of world Zionism", and "a usurping enemy that must be fought until the usurped right is returned to its owners." Israel's final departure from Lebanon is a prelude to its ultimate obliteration and to "the liberation of venerable Jerusalem from the talons of occupation." "America, the first root of vice, its allies and the Zionist entity have engaged and continue to engage in constant aggression against us and are working constantly to humiliate us. Israel is thus completely identified with the West, with the US - "the big Satan" - and with Western culture, modernization and moral corruption, which have caused all the maladies in the Arab and Muslim worlds. Both Jews and Americans are presented as "the enemies of God and Islam" and as "the Party of the Devil" versus the "Party of God." Often, the aphorisms by Khomeyni and Khamaneh'i published regularly on the back page of Hizballah's weekly al-Ahd refer to Israel. Typically, one such aphorism, attributed to Khamaneh'i, depicts Israel as "a cancerous wound in the area, an imposed and oppressive entity, having no identity, which ought to be uprooted." Although the description of Israel as a cancer is not new, the use of the adjective "cancerous" in Hizballah publications was apparently originated by Khomeyni and appears in various combinations, such as "cancerous germ" or "cancerous gland," all of which convey the uncontainable and treacherous nature of cancer and the difficulty in uprooting it. Israel is also often described as racist, treacherous and barbarian. By establishing the State of Israel, according to Hizballah rhetoric, the world has created a devil from which even greater evil will ensue, and "the Israeli poison will spread and affect the entire world." Caricatures containing traditional Western anti-Semitic symbols are a widespread means of demonizing Israel. Typically, Israel's alleged ruthlessness is illustrated by a soldier with a long, crooked nose, long teeth and ears and a prickly chin, wearing an armband with the star of David and a steel helmet on his head, and holding a dagger dripping with blood. Blurring the Difference Between Zionists and Jews Hizballah spokesmen interchange the terms Zionism and Judaism, and Zionists and Jews, freely. In an interview, Husayn Fadiallah, the most senior religious authority of Hizballah, explained the difference between Judaism and Israel thus: Judaism, like Christianity, is a religion that is recognized by Islam. Islam calls for a dialogue with the Jews, as with the Christians, since they are "the people of the book" (ahl al-kitab). But, "there is something called Israel," which is a manifestation of "the Jewish movement," and it aims at occupying Islamic lands. Using as an excuse that this land was promised to them by God and that they had lived there thousands of years ago, the Jews expelled the people who live there. This is "political Judaism, defined as Zionism," and it constitutes aggression against all Muslims, since it uses force and oppresses others. Fadlallah proceeded to support these views with Qur'anic references to the corrupt, treacherous and aggressive nature of the Jews. "We find in the Qu'ran that the Jews are the most aggressive towards the Muslims, not because they are Jews or because they believe in the Torah but because of their aggressive resistance to the unity of the faith." They reached an agreement with the idolators to fight the prophet Muhammad, Fadlallah asserted; they are known as the killers of the prophets; they spread corruption on earth; and they oppress other peoples. The idea that those most hostile to the faithful are the Jews and the idolators is a theme which appears repeatedly. Fadiallah and other Hizballah spokesmen do not see any contradiction in presenting Islamic sources as displaying tolerance toward the Jews, on the one hand, and as exposing the Jews' wickedness, on the other. These same sources, according to Hizballah ideologists, also provide the reasoning behind and the motivation for, the irreconcilable struggle between Islam and Judaism, which is viewed as the struggle between truth and falsehood, and good and evil. The Hizballah fighters wage war on Israel out of religious belief and conviction, "just as they pray and fast - it's God's order to them." Israel is a state that emerged in the heart of the Arab nation in order to revive "the Jewish persona" through Zionist racism in confrontation with all Muslims. "Either we destroy Israel or Israel destroys us." A further dimension is added to the abiding enmity between Islam and Judaism in the utilization of Western anti-Semitic images and perceptions of Jews. "The Jews are the enemy of the entire human race." "Zionism dictates the world and dominates it." "The Jews constitute a financial power.... They use funds to dominate the Egyptian media and infect its society with AIDS." "The Torah inspires the Jews to kill." The conspiratorial and racial character of Zionism is developed extensively in the analytical articles that appeared in the movement's monthly, al-Muntalaq, during the period under review. According to this publication, world Zionism cooperated with the secretive Masonic order in order to dominate the world. The Jews view themselves as the chosen people, which is the source of their racism and their condescending attitude to other peoples. The origins of the Jewish image in Western societies are described at length as further proof of the universally negative perception of the Jews. One of the articles refers to Shylock in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, and to the definition of the word "Jew" that appears in French and English dictionaries as the symbol of "deceit, hypocrisy, treachery, exploitation, cheating and hatred of others." Fadlallah, in another interview, is quoted as saying: "The Jews want to be a world super power. This racist circle of Jews wants to take vengeance on the whole world for their history of persecution and humiliation. In this light, the Jews will work on the basis that Jewish interests are above all world interests. No one should imagine that the Jews act on behalf of any super or minor power; it is their personality to make for themselves a future world presence." Yet, despite their seemingly invincible power, "the Zionists are also cowardly and meek.". Even if it takes another century, Islam will emerge victorious, as it did in the twelfth century when it banished the Crusaders who had occupied Palestine for two hundred years, and as it did by spiritually overpowering the descendants of the savage Mongols who had conquered the Islamic territories in the thirteenth century. Close scrutiny of outpourings of anti-Zionist and anti-Semitic sentiment by Hizballah activists reveals that they occur more frequently on certain occasions, as follows: Memorial days for the fallen (the "martyrs") killed as a result of Israeli military operations in Lebanon, such as that held annually in February for Sheikh Raghib Harb, observed by the entire movement. It was on this occasion in 1985 that Hizballah's platform was first read out at a mass rally in the form of an open letter. 2. Following Israeli military operations. The abduction of Sheikh 'Abd al- Karim 'Ubayd in July 1989, the killing of Sheikh 'Abbas al-Musawi in February 1992 and Israeli strikes at Hizballah bases in southern Lebanon in retaliation for ambushes of Israeli soldiers in Israeli security zone, unleashed an outpouring of emotion expressed in numerous speeches, articles and radio commentaries. These included such epithets as: "wicked enemies of God and Mankind," 11 villains," "Zionist gang," "blood-thirsty Zionists," "the most cowardly of God's creatures." Similar reactions followed Operation Accountability in July 1993, attempting to instigate war by reiterating that Hizballah consists of "followers of martyr Husayn ... the sons of the blood revolution of Karbala" (the battle in 680 in which Imam Husayn Ibn 'Ali was martyred). 3. Regional and international political events relating to the Middle East and specifically to the Arab-Israeli conflict. The holding of the multi- lateral peace talks in Madrid, the invalidation of the UN resolution equating Zionism with racism, and the decision of the Palestinian National Council to join the peace talks, were vehemently denounced, with Hizballah issuing special statements on these occasions reiterating depictions of the "conspiratorial, conceited and obstinate" character of the Jew, who should never be trusted. The peace conference was labelled a "Satanic plan," and peace with the "Israeli enemy" was equated with "peace with crime, treachery, barbarism and racism." 4. Religious, especially Shi'i, holidays. When Hizballah terrorist activity is plotted on a graph, the curve soars during the 40 days following 'Ashura, the Shi'is holiest day, commemorating Imam Husayn's martyrdom, which became a symbol of Shi'i oppression and later of Shi'i activism and is observed by demonstrations and self-flagellation. 5. Jerusalem Day. A commemorative holiday fixed by Khomeyni in 1980. 6. During parliamentary elections. In presenting their political platform during the election campaign in 1992, Hizballah candidates made frequent references to the conflict with Israel and the Jews, including inflammatory anti-Semitic allusions such as "parasitic entity," "the Zionist culprits," and "the struggle with the Jews is a struggle for Islamic survival." Several Lebanese and American Jews were taken hostage by Hizballah in the first couple of years of the organization's activity, and some Lebanese Jews, among them the head of the community, Isaac Sasson, were accused of being Israeli spies and executed during 1985/ 86. It would appear that their primary guilt was in being Jews who continued to live in the Muslim quarter of Beirut after 1984 when Hizballah forces gained control over it, or, in the case of foreign hostages, having Jewish names. Jerusalem - The Building of a Myth The holiness of Jerusalem and its importance to Islam assumed mythical dimensions in the Arab world and especially in the Islamic fundamentalist movements after the Six-Day War of 1967. This trend received further impetus from the Iranian Islamic revolution, which adopted Jerusalem as a political symbol, stressing its religious importance to all Muslims. For Hizballah as well, the liberation of Jerusalem is perceived as the esssence of the resistance effort, with the struggle for Lebanon merely a stage on the road to the redemption of Jerusalem. Hizballah zealously adopted Jerusalem Day, which was fixed as an Islamic holiday by Khomeyni in 1980, a year after he seized power in Iran, on the last Friday of the month of Ramadan. The day is commemorated by Hizballah with marches, demonstrations and mass rallies. It is known as "the day of Islam" or "the day of Islamic revival," when every Muslim must prepare himself for the confrontation with Israel. Jerusalem Day gained the status of other religious Islamic holidays such as "the day of the battle of Badr" (in 624, a battle won by Muhammad which symbolizes the victory of a minority over a majority), "the night of Mi'raj" (the night of Muhammad's ascent to heaven), and 'Id al-Fitr (the last day of Ramadan). Two Hizballah military units were named for Jerusalem - the Jerusalem Brigade in Ba'albak and the Division of the Liberation of Jerusalem. An entire issue of al-Muntalaq was dedicated to Jerusalem in 1991, covering historical, religious and political aspects. Numerous articles traced the origins of the city's holiness and its importance to the Muslims. Jerusalem was presented as an Islamic cause manifested in light of its "Islamic historical glory." It is also perceived as a unifying factor, thereby playing an essential role in Hizballah's pan-Islamic ideology. Jerusalem is consistently viewed as a unique symbol which spans all political trends and religious schools of thought in the Muslim world. Its status is of concern to the entire Islamic nation and is perceived as a reflection of that nation's strength or weakness. Historically, Jerusalem is the first qibla (direction of prayer), the site of the al-Aqsa Mosque, and the third holiest city after Mecca and Medina. Emotionally, it is a concept capable of mobilizing the masses of the Islamic nation and a banner around which they can rally and start taking charge of their own destiny. According to Husayn Fadlallah, Jerusalem was, is and will remain the axis of the jihad movement for all Muslims. However, because they adopted foreign ideologies, the Arabs mistreated Jerusalem over the years and related to it solely as a geographical region, ignoring its religious sanctity. In his view Jerusalem is the essence of the Islamic strategic plan, which aims at the revival of Islam and the retrieval of the lost pride and dignity of the Islamic nation. For this reason, Fadlallah declared, it must be kept ever-present in the mind. Conclusion Hizballah acquired its theoretical basis including its attitude toward Israel and the Jews from Khomeynism. Ayatollah Khomeyni, together with Fadlailah, 44 gave a practical and activist form" to those Qur'anic verses, and the hadith, relating to "the struggle against culprits and unbelievers," according to one commentator. "Their view of the conflict derives from a deep understanding of the Qur'an and history." Khomeyni also drew on traditional Shi'i attitudes toward the Jews, which viewed them as unclean, impure and corrupt infidels and treated them with overt contempt. He referred to the impurity of the Jews in his books and laid down rules for dealing with them, although apparently Hizballah chose to ignore this argumentation in their statements, speeches and articles on the Jews. Hizballah is completely opposed to Jews and Judaism and stresses the eternal conflict between them and Islam, although it also cites the more tolerant aspects of Islam toward the Jews. The movement claims to distinguish between Judaism and Zionism, but at the same time reinforces its anti-Zionism by reviving the ancient Islamic enmity toward the Jews, revealing that essentially there is no separation between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism in the Hizballah view. Hizballah's brand of anti-Semitism is yet another addition to the emerging phenomenon of Islamic anti-Semitism, and is typical of the fundamentalist Islamic movements generally, combining traditional Islamic perceptions with Western anti-Semitic terminology and motifs to express its opposition to Zionism. Zionism, in turn, is equated not only with the State of Israel but also with imperialism and with Western arrogance. Hizballah has been making efforts to reconcile three disparate elements in its ideology - the pan-Islamic, Shi'i and Lebanese. It has come to recognize that political, social and economic conditions, whether local, regional or international, affect ideology and dictate change. For example, it appears that the movement is modifying its tactics in the domestic Lebanese arena. By participating in Lebanon's parliamentary elections; allowing the deployment of the Lebanese army into southern Lebanon; and functioning within the existing political system, Hizballah has displayed a greater awareness of its Lebanese identity, seeing no contradiction between Lebanese nationalism and the Islamic revolution. Its attitude toward Israel and Judaism, however, remains unchanged. It is consistent and inflexible, even though Hizballah spokesmen acknowledge the movement's practical limitations in the event of an all-out war. Fadlallah even admitted that "Israel has now become an undisputed fact ... on the international scene, whether we like it or not," yet victory over Israel is still the first step toward the achievement of a perfect society and a perfect individual, in the Hizballah view. The idea of the eradication of the State of Israel, symbolizes the universal pan-Islamic aspect of Hizballah's ideology and the first target in the struggle against the West. Moreover, the volatile political situation in southern Lebanon, the peace negotiations, and the prospective changes in relations between Israel and the Arab states, have pushed Israel as an issue, and hence anti-Semitic manifestations as a corollary, to the forefront, causing these to receive a greater share of exposure than their actual importance in the overall philosophy of Hizballah would warrant. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- "Justice" No. 6 August 1995 The International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists 10 Daniel Frish St. Tel Aviv 64731 ISRAEL TEL 972-3-691-0673 FAX 972-3-695-3855 --------------------------------------------------------------------- . ===================================================================== Information Division, Israel Foreign Ministry - Jerusalem Mail all Queries to URL: gopher:// =====================================================================