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Iraqi Intelligence Service - IIS
[Mukhabarat] Department of General Intelligence

The Iraqi Intelligence Service - IIS [Mukhabarat, also known as the Department of General Intelligence] is the most notorious and possibly the most important arm of the state security system.

Saddam Hussien participated in an unsuccessful attempt by the Baath Party to assassinate Iraq's ruler Abd al Karim Qasim in October 1959. Between 1964 and 1966 Saddam was put in charge of the Jihaz al Khas (Special Apparatus), codenamed Jihaz al-Haneen (Instrument of Yearning) which concentrated on intelligence and security work. After the Baath Party took power on 17 July 1968, Saddam' expanded the Jihaz al-Khas, and extended his span of control to the Amn (security) state internal security department. In 1973 the Jihaz was transformed into the Da'irat al Mukhabarat al Amah (General Intelligence Department or GID) after the failed coup attempt by Director of Internal Security Nazim Kazzar.

In 1982 the Department of General Intelligence underwent a personnel shake-up. At that time, it was headed by Saadun Shakir, who was an RCC member and, like Saddam Husayn, a Tikriti, and who was assisted by Saddam Husayn's younger half-brother, Barazan Husayn. Foreign observers believed that the president was dissatisfied because the agency had not anticipated the assassination attempt at Ad Dujayl. It was also believed that several separate intelligence networks were incorporated within the department, and that Iraqi intelligence agents operated both at home and abroad in their mission to seek out and eliminate opponents of the Baghdad regime.

In June 1995 Iraqi President Saddam Hussein dismissed his stepbrother Saba'wi Ibrahim al-Hasan who was head of the intelligence agency, based on his faliure maintain domestic security of Iraq. Brigadier Majid Hasan al-Majid, an experienced Iraqi intelligence official, replaced Ibrahim al-Hasan.

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Created by John Pike
Maintained by Steven Aftergood
Updated Wednesday, November 26, 1997 5:56:23 PM