United States General Accounting Office ___________________________________________________________________ GAO Report to the Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives ___________________________________________________________________ May 1990 COMPUTER SECURITY Governmentwide Planning Process Had Limited Impact ___________________________________________________________________ GAO/IMTEC-90-48 B-238954 May 10, 1990 The Honorable Robert A. Roe Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology House of Representatives Dear Mr. Chairman: This report responds to your June 5, 1989, request and subsequent agreements with your office that we review the governmentwide computer security planning and review process required by the Computer Security Act of 1987. The act required federal agencies to identify systems that contain sensitive information and to develop plans to safeguard them. As agreed, we assessed the (1) planning process in 10 civilian agencies as well as the extent to which they implemented planned controls described in 22 selected plans and (2) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)/National Security Agency (NSA) review of the plans. This is the fifth in a series of reports on implementation of the Computer Security Act that GAO has prepared for your committee. Appendix I details the review's objectives, scope, and methodology. Appendix II describes the systems covered by the 22 plans we reviewed. RESULTS IN BRIEF ---------------- The planning and review process implemented under the Computer Security Act did little to strengthen computer security governmentwide. Although agency officials believe that the process heightened awareness of computer security, they typically described the plans as merely "reporting requirements" and of limited use in addressing agency- specific problems. Officials cited three problems relating to the design and implementation of the planning process: (1) the plans lacked adequate information to serve as management tools and some agencies already had planning processes in place, (2) managers had little time to prepare the plans, and (3) the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) planning guidance was sometimes unclear and misinterpreted by agency officials. 1 B-238954 Although a year has passed since the initial computer security plans were completed, agencies have made little progress in implementing planned controls. Agency officials said that budget constraints and inadequate top management support--in terms of resources and commitment--were key reasons why controls had not been implemented. Based on the results of the planning and review process, OMB--in conjunction with NIST and NSA--issued draft security planning guidance in January 1990. The draft guidance focuses on agency security programs and calls for NIST, NSA, and OMB to visit agencies to discuss their security programs and problems, and provide advice and technical assistance. We believe that efforts directed toward assisting agencies in solving specific problems and drawing top management attention to computer security issues have greater potential for improving computer security governmentwide. BACKGROUND ---------- The Computer Security Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-235) was passed in response to concerns that the security of sensitive information was not being adequately addressed in the federal government.1 The act's intent was to improve the security and privacy of sensitive information in federal computer systems by establishing minimum security practices. The act required agencies to (1) identify all developmental and operational systems with sensitive information, (2) develop and submit to NIST and NSA for advice and comment a security and privacy plan for each system identified, and (3) establish computer security training programs. OMB Bulletin 88-16, developed with NIST and NSA assistance, provides guidance on the computer security plans required by the act. To be in compliance, approximately 60 civilian agencies submitted almost 1,600 computer security plans to a NIST/NSA review team in early 1989. Nearly all of these plans followed, to some degree, the format and content requested by the bulletin. The bulletin requested that the following information be included in each plan: 1The act defines sensitive information as any unclassified information that in the event of loss, misuse, or unauthorized access or modification, could adversely affect the national interest, conduct of a federal program, or the privacy individuals are entitled to under the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a). 2 B-238954 -- Basic system identification: agency, system name and type, whether the plan combines systems, operational status, system purpose, system environment, and point of contact. -- Information sensitivity: laws and regulations affecting the system, protection requirements, and description of sensitivity. -- Security control status: reported as "in place," "planned," "in place and planned" (i.e., some aspects of the control are operational and others are planned), or "not applicable," and a brief description of and expected operational dates for controls that are reported as planned.2 (Appendix V lists the controls.) Appendix III presents a composite security plan that we developed for this report as an example of the civilian plans we reviewed. It is representative of the content, format, and common omissions of the plans. PLANS HAD LIMITED IMPACT ON --------------------------- AGENCY COMPUTER SECURITY PROGRAMS --------------------------------- The goals of the planning process were commendable--to strengthen computer security by helping agencies identify and evaluate their security needs and controls for sensitive systems. According to agency officials, the process yielded some benefits, the one most frequently cited being increased management awareness of computer security. Further, some officials noted that the planning process provided a framework for reviewing their systems' security controls. However, problems relating to the design and implementation of the planning process limited its impact on agency security programs. Specifically, (1) the plans lacked adequate information to serve as effective management tools, (2) managers had little time to prepare the plans, and (3) the OMB guidance was sometimes unclear and misinterpreted by the agencies. Consequently, most agency officials viewed the plans as reporting requirements, rather than as management tools. 2In this report, we are using the term "planned controls" to include controls that agencies listed as "planned" or "in place and planned" in their January 1989 plans. Both categories indicated that the controls were not fully in place. 3 B-238954 Plans Lacked Adequate Information to ------------------------------------ Serve as Effective Management Tools ----------------------------------- Although agency officials said that security planning is essential to the effective management of sensitive systems, the plans lacked important information that managers need in order to plan, and to monitor and implement plans. The plans did not include this information, in part, because they were designed not only to help agencies plan, but also to facilitate NIST/NSA's review of the plans and to minimize the risks of unauthorized disclosure of vulnerabilities. For example: -- Many plans provided minimal descriptions (a sentence or nothing at all) of system sensitivity and planned security controls. Detailed descriptions would have made the plans more useful in setting priorities for implementing planned controls. -- The plans did not assign responsibility for each planned control. It was not clear, therefore, who was accountable for implementing the control (e.g., who would be performing a risk assessment). -- The plans did not include resource estimates needed to budget for planned actions. -- The plans generally did not refer to computer security- related internal control weaknesses, although such information can be important in developing plans. Finally, officials from about one-third of the agencies said that they already had more comprehensive planning processes to help them identify and evaluate their security needs. As a result, the governmentwide process was largely superfluous for these agencies. Officials at such agencies said that their plans, which included information such as detailed descriptions of security controls, already met the objectives of the governmentwide planning process. Many officials said that what they needed was assistance in areas such as network security. Managers Had Little ------------------- Time to Prepare the Plans ------------------------- Officials had little time to adequately consider their security needs and prepare plans, further limiting the usefulness of the plans. OMB Bulletin 88-16 was issued July 6, 1988, 27 weeks before the plans were due to the NIST/NSA 4 B-238954 review team, as required by the Computer Security Act. However, less than 14 weeks was left after most agencies issued guidance on responding to the OMB request. Within the remaining time, instructions were sent to the component agencies and from there to the managers responsible for preparing the plans, meetings were held to discuss the plans, managers prepared the plans, and the plans were reviewed by component agencies and returned to the agencies for review. As a result, some managers had only a few days to prepare plans. Guidance Was Sometimes Unclear ------------------------------ and Misinterpreted by Agencies ------------------------------ Many agency officials misinterpreted or found the guidance unclear as to how systems were to be combined in the plans, the definition of some key terms (e.g., "in place"), the level of expected detail, and the need to address telecommunications. For example, some plans combined many different types of systems--such as microcomputers and mainframes--having diverse functions and security needs, although the guidance specified that only similar systems could be combined. When dissimilar systems were combined, the plan's usefulness as a management tool was limited. Further, for plans that combined systems, some agencies reported that a security control was in place for the entire plan, although it was actually in place for only a few systems. Agency officials stated that they combined systems in accordance with their understanding of the OMB guidance and NIST/NSA verbal instructions. In addition, officials were confused about how much detail to include in the plans and whether to address telecommunications issues (e.g., network security). For example, they said that although the guidance asked for brief descriptions of systems and information sensitivity, NIST/NSA reviewers frequently commented that plans lacked adequate descriptions. NIST officials said they expected that the plans would be more detailed and discuss the vulnerabilities inherent in networks. They said, in retrospect, that it would have been helpful if the guidance had provided examples and clarified the level of expected detail. AGENCIES HAVE NOT IMPLEMENTED ----------------------------- MOST PLANNED SECURITY CONTROLS ------------------------------ Although a year has passed since the initial computer security plans were completed, agencies have made little 5 B-238954 progress in implementing planned controls.3 The 22 plans we reviewed contained 145 planned security controls. According to agency officials, as of January 1990, only 38 percent of the 145 planned controls had been implemented. Table 1 shows the number and percentage of planned security controls that had been implemented as of January 1990. Table 1: Implementation of Security Controls in 22 Plans Percent Security control Planned Implemented implemented ---------------- ------- ----------- ----------- Assignment of security responsibility 7 7 100 Audit and variance detection 7 7 100 Confidentiality controls 3 3 100 User identification and authentication 2 2 100 Personnel selection and screening 7 6 86 Security measures for support systems 9 5 56 Security awareness and training measures 20 12 60 Authorization/access controls 4 2 50 Contingency plans 11 5 45 Data integrity and validation controls 8 2 25 Audit trails and maintaining journals 12 2 17 3Only 4 percent of the security controls had implementation dates beyond January 1990. 6 B-238954 Production, input/ output controls 8 1 13 Risk/sensitivity assessment 11 1 9 Security specifications 10 0 0 Design review and testing 11 0 0 Certification/ accreditation 14 0 0 Software controls 1 0 0 Total 145 55 - According to many agency officials, budget constraints and lack of adequate top management support--in terms of resources and commitment--were key reasons why security controls had not yet been implemented. Although some officials stated that the planning process has raised management awareness of computer security issues, this awareness has, for the most part, apparently not yet resulted in increased resources for computer security programs. A number of officials said that security has been traditionally viewed as overhead and as a target for budget cuts. Some officials noted that requests for funding of contingency planning, full-time security officers, and training for security personnel and managers have a low approval rate. NIST/NSA REVIEW FEEDBACK WAS GENERAL ------------------------------------ AND OF LIMITED USE TO AGENCIES ------------------------------ Agency officials said that the NIST/NSA review comments and recommendations on their plans were general and of limited use in addressing specific problems. However, because the plans were designed to be brief and minimize the risks of unauthorized disclosure, they had little detailed information for NIST and NSA to review. Thus, the NIST/NSA review team focused their comments on (1) the plans' conformity with the OMB planning guidance and (2) governmentwide guidance (e.g., NIST Federal Information Processing Standards publications) relating to planned security controls. (Appendix IV provides an example of typical NIST/NSA review comments and recommendations.) 7 B-238954 Despite the limited agency use of the feedback, NIST officials said that the information in the plans will be useful to NIST in identifying broad security weaknesses and needs. During the review process, the NIST/NSA review team developed a data base that included the status of security controls for almost 1,600 civilian plans. NIST intends to use statistics from the data base to support an upcoming report on observations and lessons learned from the planning and review process. Noting that the data have limitations-- for example, varying agency interpretations of "in place"-- NIST officials said that areas showing the greatest percentage of planned controls indicated areas where more governmentwide guidance might be needed. Appendix V shows the status of security controls in the civilian plans, according to our analysis of the NIST/NSA data base.4 REVISED GUIDANCE PROVIDES ------------------------- FOR AGENCY ASSISTANCE --------------------- The 1990 draft OMB security planning guidance calls for NIST, NSA, and OMB to provide advice and technical assistance on computer security issues to federal agencies as needed. Under the guidance, NIST, NSA, and OMB would visit agencies and discuss (1) their computer security programs, (2) the extent to which the agencies have identified their sensitive computer systems, (3) the quality of their security plans, and (4) their unresolved internal control weaknesses. NIST officials said that the number of agencies visited in fiscal year 1991 will depend on that year's funding for NIST's Computer Security Division, which will lead NIST's effort, and the number of staff provided by NSA. In addition, under the 1990 draft guidance, agencies would develop plans for sensitive systems that are new or significantly changed, did not have a plan for 1989, or had 1989 plans for which NIST and NSA could not provide comments because of insufficient information. Agencies would be required to review their component agency plans and provide independent advice and comment. CONCLUSIONS ----------- The government faces new levels of risk in information security because of increased use of networks and computer 4NIST and NSA deleted agency and system names from the data base provided to us. 8 B-238954 literacy and greater dependence on information technology overall. As a result, effective computer security programs are more critical than ever in safeguarding the systems that provide essential government services. The planning and feedback process was an effort to strengthen computer security by helping agencies identify and assess their sensitive system security needs, plans, and controls. However, the plans created under the process were viewed primarily as reporting requirements, and although the process may have elevated management awareness of computer security, as yet it has done little to strengthen agency computer security programs. OMB's draft planning security guidance creates the potential for more meaningful improvements by going beyond planning and attempting to address broader agency-specific security problems. However, although NIST, NSA, and OMB assistance can provide an impetus for change, their efforts must be matched by agency management commitment and actions to make needed improvements. Ultimately, it is the agencies' responsibility to ensure that the information they use and maintain is adequately safeguarded and that appropriate security measures are in place and tested. Agency management of security is an issue we plan to address in our ongoing review of this important area. --- --- --- As requested, we did not obtain written agency comments on this report. We did, however, discuss its contents with NIST, OMB, and NSA officials and have included their comments where appropriate. We conducted our review between July 1989 and March 1990, in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. As arranged with your office, unless you publicly release the contents of this report earlier, we plan no further distribution until 30 days after the date of this letter. At that time we will send copies to the appropriate House and Senate committees, major federal agencies, OMB, NIST, NSA, and other interested parties. We will also make copies available to others on request. This report was prepared under the direction of Jack L. Brock, Jr., Director, Government Information and Financial Management, who can be reached at (202) 275-3195. Other major contributors are listed in appendix VI. 9 B-238954 Sincerely yours, Ralph V. Carlone Assistant Comptroller General 10 B-238954 CONTENTS Page --------- ---- LETTER 1 APPENDIX I Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 12 II Plans GAO Reviewed 14 III Computer Security and Privacy Plan 16 IV NIST/NSA Feedback on Computer Security Plans 21 V Status of Security Controls in 1,542 Plans 22 VI Major Contributors to This Report 24 Related GAO Products 25 TABLE 1 Implementation of Security Controls in 22 6 Plans ABBREVIATIONS ------------- GAO General Accounting Office IMTEC Information Management and Technology Division NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NSA National Security Agency OMB Office of Management and Budget 11 APPENDIX I APPENDIX I OBJECTIVES, SCOPE, AND METHODOLOGY ---------------------------------- In response to a June 5, 1989, request of the Chairman, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, and subsequent agreements with his office, we assessed the impact of the computer security planning and review process required by the Computer Security Act of 1987. As agreed, we limited our review primarily to 10 civilian agencies in the Washington, D.C. area: the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Energy, Health and Human Services, the Interior, Labor, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs and the General Services Administration. As agreed, the Department of Defense was excluded from our review because the plans it submitted differed substantially in format and content from the civilian plans. Specifically, we --assessed the computer security planning process and NIST/NSA review comments on the security plans developed as a result of the process, --determined the extent to which the 10 agencies implemented planned control measures reported in 22 selected plans, and --developed summary statistics using a NIST/NSA data base covering over 1,500 civilian computer security plans. To assess the impact of the planning and review process on agencies' security programs, we interviewed information resource management, computer security, and other officials from the 10 agencies listed above. In addition, we interviewed officials from NIST, NSA, and OMB who were involved in the planning process, to gain their perspectives on the benefits and problems associated with the process. We analyzed 22 computer security plans developed by the 10 agencies and the NIST/NSA review feedback relating to the plans. Most plans addressed groups of systems. (See app. II for a description of the systems.) We selected the systems primarily on the basis of their sensitivity, significance, and prior GAO, President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency, and OMB reviews. We also reviewed federal computer security planning and review guidance, department requests for agency component plans, and department and agency computer security policies. 12 APPENDIX I APPENDIX I To determine the extent to which planned computer security controls have been implemented, we reviewed the 22 plans and discussed with agency officials the status of these controls. To develop security plan statistics, we used the NIST/NSA data base, which contains data on the status of controls for over 1,500 plans. We did not verify the status of the planned controls as reported to us by agency officials, the accuracy of the plans, or the data in the NIST/NSA data base. 13 APPENDIX II APPENDIX II PLANS GAO REVIEWED ------------------ Organization Plan ------------ ---- Farmers Home Administration Automated Field Management System Accounting Systems Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Automation Systems Social Security Administration Benefit Payment System Social Security Number Assignment System Earnings Maintenance System Access Control Event Processor System Bureau of Labor Statistics Economic Statistics System Employment Standards Federal Employees' Administration Compensation System Level I U.S. Geological Survey National Digital Cartographic Data Base National Earthquake Information Service Federal Aviation Administration En Route and Terminal Air Traffic Control System Maintenance and Operations Support Systems Interfacility Communications System Ground-to-Air Systems Weather and Flight Services Systems 14 APPENDIX II APPENDIX II Organization Plan ------------ ---- Internal Revenue Service Compliance Processing System Tax Processing System Customs Service Automated Commercial System Veterans Affairs Austin Data Mainframe Equipment Processing Center Configuration General Services Administration FSS-19 Federal Supply System Department of Energy Strategic Mainframe Computer and PC Petroleum Reserve Project Sensitive Systems Management Office Note: Summary information describing each of the above systems has been omitted from this version of the report. Call GAO report distribution at 202-275-6241 to obtain a complete copy of this report. 15 APPENDIX III APPENDIX III COMPUTER SECURITY AND PRIVACY PLAN ---------------------------------- We developed this composite security plan to show what most civilian plans contained, their format, and some common omissions. Notes in parentheses show common deviations from the OMB guidance. Computer Security and Privacy Plan 1. BASIC SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION Reporting Department or Agency - Department of X Organizational Subcomponent - Subagency Y Operating Organization - Organization Z System Name/Title - Automated Report Management System (ARMS) System Category [X] Major Application [ ] General-Purpose ADP Support System Level of Aggregation [X] Single Identifiable System [ ] Group of Similar Systems Operational Status [X] Operational [ ] Under Development General Description/Purpose - The primary purpose of ARMS is to retrieve, create, process, store, and distribute data. (Note: The description and purpose is incomplete. OMB Bulletin 88-16 required a one or two paragraph description of the function and purpose of the system.) System Environment and Special Considerations - System is controlled by a ABC series computer which is stored in the computer room. (Note: The environment is not adequately described. OMB Bulletin 88-16 requested a description of system location, types of computer hardware and software involved, types of users served, and other special considerations.) Information Contact - Security Officer, J. Doe, 202/275-xxxx 16 APPENDIX III APPENDIX III 2. SENSITIVITY OF INFORMATION General Description of Information Sensitivity The data ARMS maintains and uses are those required to provide a total management information function. (Note: This description is inadequate. OMB Bulletin 88-16 requested that the plans describe, in general terms, the nature of the system and the need for protective measures.) Applicable Laws or Regulations Affecting the System 5 U.S.C. 552a, "Privacy Act," c. 1974. System Protection Requirements The Protection Requirement is: Primary Secondary Minimal/NA [X] Confidentiality [X] [ ] [ ] [X] Integrity [X] [ ] [ ] [X] Availability [ ] [X] [ ] 3. SYSTEM SECURITY MEASURES Risk Assessment - There currently exists no formal large scale risk assessment covering ARMS. We are scheduling a formal risk analysis. Applicable Guidance - FIPS PUBS No. 41, Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974; FIPS PUB No. 83, Guidelines on User Authentication Techniques for Computer Network Access Control. 17 APPENDIX III APPENDIX III SECURITY MEASURES ----------------- MANAGEMENT CONTROLS In Place In Place Planned & Planned N/A -------- ------- --------- --- Assignment of Security Responsibility [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Risk/Sensitivity Assessment [ ] [ ] [X] [ ] A formal risk analysis program will be used to update the current assessment. (Note: An expected operational date is not included. OMB Bulletin 88-16 states that there should be expected operational dates for controls that are planned or in place and planned.) Personnel Selection Screening [ ] [ ] [X] [ ] National Agency Check Inquiries (NACI) are required for all employees but have not been completed for everyone having access to sensitive information. Expected operational date - October 1989. DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS In Place In Place Planned & Planned N/A -------- ------- --------- --- Security Specifications [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Design Review & Testing [ ] [ ] [ ] [X] Certification/ Accreditation [ ] [X] [ ] [ ] (Note: No information is given for certification/ accreditation. OMB Bulletin 88-16 states that a general description of the planned measures and expected operational dates should be provided.) 18 APPENDIX III APPENDIX III OPERATIONAL CONTROLS In Place In Place Planned & Planned N/A -------- ------- --------- --- Production, I/O Controls [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Contingency Planning [ ] [X] [ ] [ ] A contingency plan is being developed in compliance with requirements established by the agency's security program. Completion date - November 1990. Audit and Variance Detection [ ] [ ] [X] [ ] Day-to-day procedures are being developed for variance detection. Audit reviews are also being developed and will be conducted on a monthly basis. Completion date - June 1989. Software Maintenance Controls [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Documentation [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] SECURITY AWARENESS AND TRAINING In Place In Place Planned & Planned N/A -------- ------- --------- --- Security Awareness and Training Measures [ ] [ ] [X] [ ] Training for management and users in information and application security will be strengthened, and security awareness training provided for all new employees beginning in June 1989. 19 APPENDIX III APPENDIX III TECHNICAL CONTROLS In Place In Place Planned & Planned N/A -------- ------- --------- --- User Identification and Authentication [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Authorization/Access Controls [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Data Integrity & Validation Controls [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] Audit Trails & Journaling [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] SUPPORT SYSTEM SECURITY MEASURES In Place In Place Planned & Planned N/A -------- ------- --------- --- Security Measures for Support Systems [X] [ ] [ ] [ ] 4. NEEDS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS (Note: This section was left blank in most plans. OMB Bulletin 88-16 stated that the purpose of this section was to give agency planners the opportunity to include comments concerning needs for additional guidance, standards, or other tools to improve system protection.) 20 APPENDIX IV APPENDIX IV NIST/NSA FEEDBACK ON COMPUTER SECURITY PLANS -------------------------------------------- The following example shows typical NIST/NSA comments and recommendations. COMPUTER SECURITY PLAN REVIEW PROJECT COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REF. NO. 0001 AGENCY NAME: Department of X Subagency Y SYSTEM NAME: Automated Report Management System The brevity of information in the information sensitivity, general system description, and the system environment sections made it difficult to understand the security needs of the system. Information on the physical, operational, and technical environment and the nature of the sensitivity is essential to understanding the security needs of the system. For some controls, such as security training and awareness, expected operational dates are not indicated as required by OMB Bulletin 88-16. The plan refers to the development control, design review and testing, as not applicable. Even in an operational system, development controls should be addressed as historical security measures and as ongoing measures for changing hardware and software. The plan notes that a more formal risk assessment is being planned. This effort should help your organization more effectively manage risks and security resources. National Institute of Standards and Technology Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 65, "Guideline for Automatic Data Processing Risk Analysis," and 73, "Guideline for the Security of Computer Applications" may be of help in this area. 21 APPENDIX V APPENDIX V STATUS OF SECURITY CONTROLS IN 1,542 PLANS ------------------------------------------ Planned & Plan In place in place Planned ---- -------- --------- ------- Security controls responses#a (percent) (percent) (percent) Management controls Assignment of security responsibility 1,448 91 5 4 Personnel selection and screening 1,268 84 11 5 Risk analysis and sensitivity assessment 1,321 71 13 17 Development controls Design review and testing 728 82 10 8 Certification and accreditation 948 66 10 24 Security and acquisition specifications 1,093 83 10 7 Operational controls Audit and variance detection 1,177 81 7 12 Documentation 1,375 83 10 8 Emergency, backup, and contingency planning 1,381 69 14 17 Physical and environmental protection 450 87 10 4 Production and input/ output controls 1,290 87 7 7 Software maintenance controls 1,327 87 7 7 Security training and awareness measures 1,408 58 27 15 22 APPENDIX V APPENDIX V Technical controls Authorization/access controls 1,389 87 6 7 Confidentiality controls 357 84 7 9 Audit trail mechanisms 1,194 83 8 9 Integrity controls 1,220 85 8 7 User identification and authentication 1,370 87 7 6 Weighted average -- 81 10 10 Note: The status of security controls is based on information reported in 1,542 civilian plans in early 1989 and contained in the NIST/NSA data base. Missing and not applicable answers were not included in the percentages. Some percentages do not add up to 100 due to rounding. a"Plan responses" is the number of plans, out of 1,542, that addressed each control. 23 APPENDIX VI APPENDIX VI MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS REPORT --------------------------------- INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, WASHINGTON, D.C. ---------------------------------------------------------------- Linda D. Koontz, Assistant Director Jerilynn B. Hoy, Assignment Manager Beverly A. Peterson, Evaluator-in-Charge Barbarol J. James, Evaluator (510465) 24 RELATED GAO PRODUCTS -------------------- Computer Security: Identification of Sensitive Systems Operated on Behalf of Ten Agencies (GAO/IMTEC-89-70, Sept. 27, 1989). Computer Security: Compliance With Security Plan Requirements of the Computer Security Act (GAO/IMTEC-89-55, June 21, 1989). Computer Security: Compliance With Training Requirements of the Computer Security Act of 1987 (GAO/IMTEC-89-16BR, Feb. 22, 1989). Computer Security: Status of Compliance With the Computer Security Act of 1987 (GAO/IMTEC-88-61BR, Sept. 22, 1988). 25 .