Weapon Systems Intelligence Integration (WSII) Handbook; June 1999
Intelligence Data Handling Systems (IDHS)
Basic WSIIO functions require a fundamental knowledge of IDHS management structures, systems and architectures related to battle management, mission planning, intelligence analysis, database support and communications. Each of these topics are briefly summarized in this appendix.
B.1. Air Force Organizations Participating in IDHS Development, Acquisition, Integration and Sustainment.
B.1.1. HQ USAF/XOIRY, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems Integration Division. This Air Staff element establishes and directs plans and programs as the developer of intelligence systems policy. XOIRY reviews and validates intelligence system functional requirements and searches for common solutions. XOIRY also plans for and allocates automated information systems (AIS) resources and evaluates their effectiveness. Additionally, this division serves as the USAF executive agent for joint IDHS. In this role, XOIRY ensures that the USAF intelligence systems are interoperable and compliant with all relevant DoD and Intelligence Community policies, architectures, standards and systems.
B.1.2. 497 IG/IND Intelligence Systems Directorate. The 497IG/IND oversees the acquisition, implementation, and development of automated intelligence systems in support of the Director, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (HQ USAF/XOI). IND also manages the execution of spending for IDHS, tracking these systems is based on performance, cost schedule, risk, and interoperability. For more information on the AF Intelligence enterprise architectures, visit the 497 IG/IND webpage at the following URL:
The architecture information is a subset of Air Force Systems Integration Management Office (SIMO) web page found at:
B.1.3. Air Force Material Command (AFMC), Electronics Systems Center (ESC) and Rome Labs (RL). These organizations provide program management and contracting support for IDHS acquisition. In this way, they manage the day-to-day development efforts and supervise R&D transition efforts. Their combined efforts provide development, fielding and life cycle support for IDHS.
B.1.4. Air Intelligence Agency/SC and XR. These directorates support the Air Staff’s role by being the "implementers" of its policies and programs. The Plans Directorate (XR) conducts implementation planning as well as managing the support for fielded systems. Small Computers (SC) manages AIA’s communications requirements and security accreditation processes. SC also manages AIA’s intelligence software reuse program.
B.2. Command, Control and Battle Management.
B.2.1. Global Command and Control System (GCCS). GCCS is the single joint command, control, communications, computer and intelligence (C4I) system to support the warfighter. It uses legacy and new applications and technologies to form an integrated C4I capability based on the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE). The principal objectives of GCCS are (1) the replacement of the World-Wide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS) and (2) the implementation of the C4I for the Warfighter (C4IFTW) concept. The C4IFTW concept satisfies the requirement to move a U.S. fighting force anywhere on the Earth at any time and provide it with the information needed to complete its mission. Among other functions, GCCS will provide the warfighter with a common, real-time picture of the battlespace. Through GCCS, commanders at all levels will have a common and efficient way of planning, deploying, employing, monitoring and sustaining military operations. Specific intelligence support applications within GCCS reside within a software module known as Integrated Imagery and Intelligence (I3).
B.2.2. Theater Battle Management Core System (TBMCS). TBMCS provides the Combat Air Forces (CAF) with a single automated command, control and intelligence system to plan and execute joint air operations at the force (operational) and unit (tactical) levels. TBMCS is the designated migration system to replace and integrate functions performed by the Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS), the Wing Command and Control System (WCCS), and the Combat Intelligence System (CIS). To promote interoperability, intelligence functions within TBMCS will utilize I3 segments of GCCS.
B.3. Mission Planning Support Systems.
B.3.1 Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS). AFMSS is the common automated unit-level mission planning tool for aviation elements of the Combat Air Forces (CAF), Air Mobility Command (AMC) and selected US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) units. AFMSS terminals are deployable, ground-based, integrated, multi-user mission planning systems that interface with various aircraft systems via data transfer devices (DTD). Considered an extension of the weapon system, AFMSS is an integrated package allowing the operator to accomplish threat avoidance route selection, prepare the DTD for the aircraft, and prepare/print combat mission materials for the crew, and display a pre-mission fly through. AFMSS receives operational data from WCCS, CTAPS and the Automated Weather Dissemination System (AWDS); and target, threat, and geospatial information and services (GI&S) data from CIS. Planned improvements will focus on identified shortfalls in processing speed, storage capacity, software applications, transportability, growth potential, graphics (on-screen and hard copy output), timely processing of Tactical Decision Aids, radar propagation forecasts, automated combat mission folder preparation, and missile system terminal guidance planning. AFMSS Block C2.0 Upgrade (FY97 release) provides GPS coverage information as well as a basic weapons delivery planning capability. AFMSS Block C2.2 will include a target database to further support precision guided munitions at each squadron. AFMSS is composed of a Unix-based application suite known as the Mission Planning System (MPS) and a Windows NT-based application suite known as the Portable Flight Planning System (PFPS).
B.3.2. Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS). JMPS is the designated migration system for all joint service mission planning systems. At maturity, it is envisioned that JMPS will provide a single set of Windows NT-based mission planning applications for USAF, Navy and USSOCOM air operations. As such, JMPS will replace AFMSS, the Navy’s Tactical Mission Planning System (TAMPS), and USSOCOM’s Special Operations Force Planning and Rehearsal System (SOFPARS).
B.4. Intelligence Analysis Support Systems.
B.4.1. Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS). JDISS is the means by which the national level and the Joint Intelligence Centers (JIC) support the Joint Task Force through the full spectrum of peace, crisis and war. JDISS provides the primary means of communicating with Service tactical support forces through a common desktop interface and allows for the distribution of sanitized national and tactical SCI information down to unit level collateral systems. Its key features include integrated and interoperable access to external hosts (databases), electronic mail, message handling, image processing, chat and graphics capabilities. JDISS serves as the technical baseline for the Department of Defense (DoD) Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) client-server environment (CSE). As a collection of applications, JDISS can operate at different classification levels, depending upon the classifications of the information it accesses. Typically however, JDISS operates at the TS/SCI-level.
B.4.2. Linked Operations Intelligence Centers Europe (LOCE). The LOCE system supports combined intelligence operations by connecting users at all echelons, from the national ministry of defense to the tactical level. LOCE is a SECRET REL NATO intelligence system that serves as USEUCOM’s intelligence system for coalition warfare. It is also the declared U.S. gateway to NATO’s Battlefield Information Collection and Exploitation System (BICES). Each LOCE terminal provides order of battle (OB) data, bulletin boards, secondary imagery, secure voice, and multimedia E-mail connectivity to the rest of the network. This gives each user access to near-real-time (NRT), all-source, correlated air, ground and naval intelligence analysis and products. It supports I&W, current intelligence, collection management, and most aspects of the targeting cycle including nominations, air tasking orders, and battle damage assessments.
B.4.3. Community On-Line Intelligence System for End-Users and Managers (COLISEUM). COLISEUM is a database application designed to support the national intelligence community for registration, validation, tracking and management of Production Requirements (PRs). It provides a user-friendly "point and click" mechanism for scheduling, deconflicting, and assigning production assets. Most importantly, it provides the capability to track and manage overall production activities across operational and national planners. COLISEUM is designed to function as an application under the JDISS Program, which provides additional connectivity and interoperability with other intelligence systems. Read-only access is now also available through Intelink TS. Contact your MAJCOM unit support representative to establish an account.
B.4.4. Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS). DGCS is a modular architecture of fixed and deployable systems designed to simultaneously task, receive, process, exploit and disseminate all source intelligence from national, theater, tactical and commercial multi-INT (IMINT, SIGINT and MASINT) ISR collection assets. DGCS will replace a wide range of legacy systems including the Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS), the Joint Service Imagery Processing System (JSIPS), the UAV Exploitation System (EUS), the Air National Guard Deployable Transit-case System (DTS), the PACAF Integrated National Exploitation System (PINES), the Korean Combat Operations Intelligence Center (KCOIC) Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (KCARS), the Consolidated Remote Operations Facility Airborne (CROFA) and the USAFE Commercial Imagery Receive Segment (CIRS).
B.5. Intelligence Databases.
B.5.1. Modernized Integrated Data Base (MIDB). MIDB is the General Military Intelligence (GMI) system as identified by the DoD Migration Directive. MIDB expanded upon the basic order of battle, equipment and facility holdings of the Integrated Data Base (IDB) to include several legacy systems: Electronic Order of Battle Services (EOBS), Expeditionary Warfare, Military Facilities File (MILFAC), PORTS, Target Material Management (TMM), CENTCOM/SOCOM Integrated Data System (CSIDS), Force Trends database (FORT), Force Tracking Information System (FORTRIS), Space Data Base (SDB), and others. This project also provides, for the first time, a common database architecture between the national database MIDB and the service tactical systems of the Navy’s Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS), Air Force’s CIS and the Marine Corps’ Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) taking migration to a higher plateau. MIDB is also providing segmented software for compliance with the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE), and integration of the Joint Mapping Tool Kit (JMTK) mapping migration system.
B.5.2. Image Product Library (IPL). Developed by NIMA, IPL provides a distributed, standardized library function for imagery products at the national, theater, and unit levels. When fully operational, IPL will replace 5D as the DoD and national community baseline system for imagery storage and retrieval.
B.5.3. Digital Point Positioning Database (DPPDB). DPPDB is a stereo image based product developed by NIMA and introduced in the mid-1990s. The DPPDB product consists of parametric support data, compressed reference graphics, and high resolution national imagery stereo pair sets covering a nominal 60 nautical mile (NM) by 60 NM area. It can be exploited on a stereo equipped digital imagery workstation using DEWDROP (NIMA-provided exploitation software) or RAINDROP and enables rapid readout of coordinates and associated accuracy. DPPDB replaces the film-based Point Positioning Database (PPDB). DPPDB with RAINDROP may be hosted on a Sun Sparc or a PC.
B.5.4. Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED). DTED is a uniform matrix of terrain elevation values that provides basic quantitative data for all military systems that require terrain elevation, slope, and/or gross surface roughness information. Level 1 post spacing is 3 arc seconds (about 100 meters) and Level 2 post spacing is 1 arc second (about 30 meters).
B.5.5. Additional Information. The US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) provides one stop shopping for access to intelligence databases via Intelink-TS at the following URL: http://www.inscom.ic.gov/DA_DPM/databases.htm
If for some reason this URL changes, try accessing this portal through the INSCOM home page (DA DPM -- Information Roadmapping of Intelink):
B.6. Communication Networks, Services and Architectures.
B.6.1. Intelink. Intelink is a secure Internet Protocol (IP), web-based data exchange service initiated by the intelligence community for the dissemination of finished intelligence products. There are multiple versions of Intelink differentiated based on maximum classification level. Intelink-TS uses the Joint World-wide Communication System (JWICS) as its communications backbone and is classified TS/SCI. Intelink-S is classified Secret/US Only and uses the Secure Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET) as it communications backbone. Using standard commercially available web-browsers (Netscape Navigator, Mosaic, MS Explorer) users at each node on the network can post or retrieve multi-media intelligence products (news summaries, photos, target data, voice-over briefings, video clips, reports, etc).
B.6.2. Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS). IBS is a tactical intelligence dissemination network developed to provide direct support to military operations in the areas of battlefield management, targeting and situational awareness. IBS will consolidate four existing broadcasts of tactical intelligence data (Tactical Receive Equipment and Related Applications Data Dissemination System (TDDS), Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS), Tactical Reconnaissance Intelligence Exchange Service (TRIXS) and Near Real-Time Dissemination (NRTD)) into a single system of systems with a common message format, common tactical terminal and theater controlled dissemination management. Information management elements (IME) will be deployed to each geographic CINC to enable theater controlled data dissemination. The data disseminated by IBS will be near real-time tactical Intelligence from a variety of national, theater and tactical-level sensors. The IBS Program was initiated by Congress in 1995, approved by the JROC in 1997, and was funded beginning in FY98. IBS will become the sole NRT intelligence broadcast system to support the I&W and situational awareness requirements of the operational and tactical commander. The joint program is under the overall supervision of the Navy. The Army will develop the Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) downlink. The Air Force will control broadcasts. IBS will use the Global Broadcast System (GBS) as a dissemination path.
B.6.3. Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture (JIVA). The overall goal of JIVA is to create a new intelligence operating environment for the 21st century. JIVA focuses on the functions associated with Production and Dissemination phases of the intelligence cycle. It includes methods, procedures and technologies to combine cognitive analysis with administrative processes like dissemination to reduce the time required for a product to get to the user. JIVA does not include long-haul communications or intelligence collection technology, but does take into account the requirement to transfer information from collection systems to the production and dissemination functions.
B.6.4. Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS). JWICS is designed to meet the requirement for dedicated, secure (TS/SCI), interactive, video-capable intelligence communications capability for the DoD. DIA is the executive agent for JWICS development, deployment and sustainment. The basic JWICS suite functions as a communications gateway with available bandwidth from 64 Kbps to 1.544 Mbps (T-1). Subscribers may opt for the video suite that includes near-real time video teleconferencing, electronic publishing and video broadcasting. The JWICS Mobile Integrated Communications System (JMICS) provides the JTF commander with a transportable JWICS communications capability in a self-contained tactical package, capable of rapid deployments to remote operating locations world-wide.
B.7. Intelligence Systems Integration
B.7.1. Interoperability. Interoperability is an important consideration in the design and acquisition of intelligence systems. The Assistant Secretary of Defense, Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (ASD/C3I) has instituted a number of policy directives that are leading the defense community towards total integration and interoperability of its intelligence systems. DoD Directive 4630.5, Compatibility, Interoperability, and Integration of Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Systems, requires that all C3I systems developed for use by U.S. forces are to be tailored for joint operations and their designs must consider the potential for compatibility, interoperability, and integration with other systems. It continues by directing that all new DoD C3I systems and major changes to existing systems must interact with or be integrated into the standardized DoD C3I infrastructure. The directive also calls for deployed U.S. C3I systems to be interoperable with C3I systems of allied nations.
B.7.2. Background. The lack of interoperable intelligence systems was blatantly apparent during Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM. Three major problems that existed for these systems were: (1) different communications protocols; (2) software applications were incompatible; and (3) communications bandwidth requirements quickly exceeded the capacity of existing circuits. Until this time, systems development had been allowed to proliferate as long as they met a validated need. DESERT STORM demonstrated how "stove-piped" systems, though meeting isolated requirements, could not meet the collective requirements of the warfighter for rapidly disseminated intelligence. Since that time, significant efforts have been made to rectify these shortcomings.
B.7.3. Legacy Systems. Prior to this time, intelligence systems generally served one intelligence discipline, producer or customer. Over the past few years these systems have been termed "legacy systems" or those in which the original requirement for the system was satisfied. For example, all the service intelligence organizations and the national community had their own systems for collection management. This resulted in confusion among the service intelligence producers and consumers alike as well as consuming vast amounts of resources to solve redundant intelligence requirements.
B.7.4. Migration Systems. In 1994, Secretary of Defense William Perry determined that all C3I systems are joint and so directed that DoD accelerate the selection of migration systems for each of these systems and eliminate the legacy systems by FY97. Forty-four intelligence systems (excluding collection systems) were selected to migrate to one of three eventual end states, each of which will be composed of several migration paths.
B.8. Frequently Asked Questions.
B.8.1. Why do we need systems compatibility and integration? Commanders and staffs require both horizontal and vertical C4I integration to provide them with a fused, real-time, accurate picture of the Battlespace. This data is necessary in order for them to rapidly apply decision aids, make decisions, disseminate orders, and observe the effects.
B.8.2. Where do we need interoperability? Interoperability and integration are required between the intelligence systems at nearly all levels. From higher headquarters to subordinate units and across service lines, interoperability will speed information flow and reduce ambiguity of intent. Also the trend is toward multi-level security and eventually a demand for more interaction between coalition and Allied systems.