Weapon Systems Intelligence Integration (WSII) Handbook; June 1999
As mentioned previously, preparing and coordinating the ISP is only half of the WSIIO’s mission. Ultimately, success of the ISP process rests on the WSIIO’s ability to ensure all derived intelligence support requirements are met prior to weapons system IOC. In most cases, satisfying these requirements will require additional funding. This chapter provides an introduction to the terms and concepts associated with the DoD and Intelligence Community resource planning processes.
10.1 Introduction. This chapter summarizes the Biennial Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (BPPBS), and the intelligence resource management system highlighting important definitions and explaining theses processes in a question-and-answer format. WSIIOs must understand these resource management concepts because success of your program requires direct involvement in this arena. This chapter:
• Defines and describes the BPPBS.
• Explains key terminology behind the building of the Program Objective Memorandum (POM).
• Explains the different types of intelligence.
• Discusses and illustrates the intelligence resource management process.
• Compares and contrasts the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP), the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) program.
• Explains DoD and congressional budget programs and oversight.
• Lists the key documents needed throughout the BPPBS.
10.1.1 Overview. This chapter is not intended to make you a Program Element Monitor (PEM) or Functional Manager (FM). It will acquaint you with the processes that fund your system/program, what information is required, and who is involved in the process. Most importantly, it will explain how you, as the WSIIO, will ensure that your program is funded and help you learn from which "checkbook" the money comes. Although you do not serve as a PEM or FM, you must know their functions and how to help them assist you in getting intelligence requirements funded for your weapon system.
10.1.2 Asking Questions. For the new WSIIO, pay particular attention to interactions with the PEMs and FMs, the different budgetary cycles, timeliness for identifying resources, and shortfalls. You will find yourself trying to answer the universal question: "Can the job get done within existing resources?" Even if you are an experienced WSIIO, you may wish to review the budget processes periodically as you become engrossed in your weapon system’s venture into the fiscal world. Furthermore, it always helps to keep a clear and concise dialogue with the using command’s budget POC for your system.
10.1.3 Linking the Funding. You must also understand the different types of intelligence to properly identify the role of your system to the DoD and Intelligence Community resource planners. You will also have to be able to define what information your system needs; this helps identify the funding source or "checkbook" that will fund your system or program. The operating command’s program manager is an important element in helping to safeguard the funding of your weapon system’s support. Be sure to carefully review the terms and interrelationships of the processes as you proceed through this important section.
10.2 The Biennial Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (BPPBS)
10.2.1 How are Air Force programs begun? The Air Force develops its programs to achieve the defense objectives established by the President of the United States and the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF). To develop programs, the Air Force employs a corporate approach structured to support the total force. The process begins when unified commands translate guidance from the President and SECDEF into operational plans (OPLANs) designed to safeguard our national security interests. At the same time, these senior officers identify the resources needed to execute their plans now and for the next six (6) years. They also assess potential threats against national goals and objectives, and recommend long-range resource allocations.
10.2.2 How are intelligence support requirements and threats balanced against fiscal and materiel resources? The military judgment of the commanders constitutes the foundation upon which the Air Force builds the Program Objective Memorandum (POM). Under the supervision of the Secretary of the Air Force, the Air Force integrates operational requirements with the fiscal, manpower, and material resources available. This integration involves balancing near-term readiness and sustainability requirements with modernization programs and research and development initiatives to ensure total program equilibrium. Underlying this entire process are the over-arching requirements of recruiting, training, and maintaining quality personnel, which remains the key to both near-term stability and future flexibility in the Air Force program. The careful balancing of all these factors, complemented by extensive analytical support, yields a program that is responsive to all Air Force, joint, and cross-Service program requirements.
10.2.3 What is the main purpose of the BPPBS? Simply put, the BPPBS allocates DoD resources. This allocation is based on a high-level strategy developed in response to the anticipated threat. The strategy is based in part on validated requirements established by the operating command of the proposed weapon system.
10.2.4 How do I fit into the process? As a WSIIO, your principal responsibility is fostering a relationship between you and the operating command’s WSIIO, the SPO, and the PEM. Remember to review this chapter with your program/system in mind, and visualize how it fits into the entire process. The most important thing to remember is to keep your system funded.
10.3 Is the BPPBS an "end-to-end" process or is it cyclic? The BPPBS is an ever-evolving process without a definite start or end. During each cycle, the Air Staff takes three "snapshots" of the total Air Force program: the POM, the Budget Estimate Submission (BES), and the President’s Budget (PB). Following is a "quick look" at the sequence of key events of the BPPBS that lead to the FY98 President’s Budget. Direct WSIIO roles and duties are italicized.
10.3.1. Air Force planners start work in early 1994. They develop items for internal Air Force use and provide inputs to the Joint Strategic Planning Document (JSPD) and the Defense Guidance (DG).
WSIIO role: Ensure your program/system is identified in pertinent fiscal documentation by interacting with the using command program manager, your Air Staff (XOI) rep, PEM, and any other "money experts."
10.3.2. In November 95, the SECDEF issues the DG to the Services and the Joint Staff reflecting his policy, strategy, force planning, resource planning, and fiscal guidance.
WSIIO role: Be familiar with the overall force structure, since it is a strong indicator of what programs and systems will be funded.
10.3.3. POM development proceeds; it is the extensive process by which the Services, working with the using commands, prioritize fiscally constrained programs that meet Commander-in-Chief (CINC) and using command requirements for the next six (6) years.
WSIIO role: Always interact and coordinate with the using command WSIIOs; this is extremely important in the prioritization process.
10.3.4. Members of the Defense Resources Board (DRB) prepare and issue papers suggesting program changes to the Service’s POMs. The DRB reviews and provides recommendations on these proposed changes to the SECDEF.
10.3.5. The Program Decision Memorandum (PDM) records the SECDEF’s decisions on the issues and directs adjustments to the Service POM.
WSIIO role: Know what is in the PDM. Your intelligence support PEM should have the dollar breakdown of your system/program. Keep the using command informed as to the status of your program/system.
10.3.6. The Budget Estimate Submission (BES) is issued. It is the service’s budget proposal and is based on the OSD review of the Service POM, as updated by the PDM.
WSIIO role: Maintain knowledge of program/system’s dollar amounts, and re-identify them to your PEM. Do not forget to coordinate with the using command WSIIOs, since their inputs are extremely beneficial.
10.3.7. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) hold hearings to gather information on the Service’s budget estimates.
10.3.8. OSD issues Program Budget Decisions (PBDs), resolving most differences between the Services’ BESs and OSD/OMB pricing.
WSIIO role: Stay in close contact with the PEM to ensure your program requirements (to include those ISWG identified ISRs) are still on-track and funded.
10.3.9. The Air Force budget request, as approved by OSD and OMB, becomes part of the President’s Budget Submission to Congress. This usually occurs in January. Congressional review and approval occurs prior or the start of the FY98 budget year (1 October 97).
10.3.10. During the congressional authorization and appropriation process, OSD holds an execution review. The results provide a policy review of the budget, inputs for the next DG, and studies to be considered during the next POM build.
10.3.11. What is the time frame of the BPPBS? The process is called a Biennial PPBS because the DoD budget submission to the President covers two (2) years, the first two years of the six-year Future Years Defense Program (FYDP). The DRB helps the SECDEF manage the BPPBS and the systems acquisition process. This is an ongoing process. In summary, one BPPBS cycle encompasses three (3) years, from the start of Air Force planning to budget execution.
10.3.12. Are the roles of the WSIIO really that important? Yes! The WSIIO’s primary role is to interact with the operating command, as well as the SPO, to identify the program/system requirements for intelligence support. The WSIIO is the advocate for ensuring the intelligence support requirements (ISRs), associated with his program are carefully manipulated through the BPPBS process without a funding deficit. You must constantly coordinate with the operating command and AF/XOIIR personnel regarding weapon system funding, planning, and strategy requirements. The Air Force (AF) Resource Allocation Process (RAP) demands close coordination between all major actors (Intelligence System PEM -- AF/XOIIR -- WSIIO -- and the Weapon System PEM). AF/XOIIR is the focal point for all process action team (PAT) issues and is responsible for conducting cross program/team analysis. Remember it is a collective effort to manage, monitor, and implement a successful (budgeted) program. The following section will help you identify how and why intelligence resources are carefully managed.
10.4. The Intelligence Resource Management Process. Intelligence resources are grouped according to their function and/or purpose. Those that support national-level missions are managed as part of the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP). Those that support joint intelligence are managed as part of the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP). Those designed to support tactical missions of operating forces are referred to as Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA). The NFIP, JMIP and TIARA processes will be discussed extensively later in this section.
10.4.1. Why are these separate processes so important? Budgets for NFIP, JMIP and TIARA programs are processed through separate and distinct resource management systems, each of which produces input to the President’s annual budget submission to the Congress. The two rigorous and complex processes through which intelligence resource requirements are determined and prioritized are the Capabilities Programming and Budgeting System (CPBS), which produces the NFIP budget; and the BPPBS, through which the DoD budget is developed. The latter contains funds for JMIP and TIARA.
10.4.2. What are the submission and approval pathways for NFIP, JMIP and TIARA? Budgets for the individual programs in the NFIP are approved by the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), then consolidated into a single NFIP budget that is sent to the National Security Council (NSC) for review before being forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for an additional review. At the same time, JMIP and TIARA funds (which are part of the DoD budget) are approved by the SECDEF and sent directly to OMB for review. Once OMB has reviewed both the NFIP and DoD budgets, they are submitted to the President for inclusion in his budget submission to Congress.
10.4.2.1. As soon as all proposals are adjusted to the President’s satisfaction, they are compiled into a single budget proposal that the President submits to the Congress. The Congress then proceeds to move the President’s Budget through a series of steps known as Budget Resolution, Authorization, and Appropriations.
10.4.2.2. What is the end product of this process? The result of the lengthy process described above is the final federal budget. All funds appropriated in the final budget are given to the agencies that requested them. This should include those intelligence production offices identified in your ISP. These agencies then execute their budgets by obligating and spending the funds allocated.
10.4.3. How would a WSIIO find out about the portions of the budget that impact their program? It is your responsibility to acquire from the PEM a breakdown of facts and dollar amounts related to your program/system. You must communicate to the using command the final budget package of the program/system.
10.4.4. What does the term "fence" mean, in the context of DoD funding? For national security reasons, most NFIP funding is buried in the DoD budget. Although these funds are administered by the military services, they are protected by a "fence" to keep the Services from spending these funds on other requirements, as they can do more easily with JMIP and TIARA funds.
10.5. Intelligence Categories. From a resource management perspective, intelligence is categorized on the basis of whom it is designed to support and how it is funded. Thus, there are three categories of intelligence, each with its own collection, analysis, processing, and dissemination requirements. The spectrum of intelligence activities ranges from strategic to tactical. Strategic, which is generally encyclopedic and/or estimative in nature, concerns plans and intentions of foreign entities and serves as the basis of our own military tactics and operations. Tactical primarily serves operational commanders. These categories are:
National intelligence. Primarily supports the National Command Authority (i.e., the President and SECDEF) and national-level military and political leadership. Usually strategic in nature.
Joint Intelligence. Primarily supports joint operational commanders.
Tactical intelligence. Primarily supports service operational commanders.
10.5.1. National Intelligence Resource Management. A wide range of intelligence organizations conduct national intelligence. The national-level intelligence activities and resources that support multiple government agencies across executive departments are funded by a series of resource programs known collectively as the NFIP. The NFIP is currently made up of 12 separate funding programs that can be conveniently grouped as follows:
• Those that fund the activities of the major civilian and DoD intelligence organizations.
• Those that fund the activities of the military services that provide national-level intelligence support.
• Those that fund the intelligence activities of various federal departments and agencies.
• The one that funds the operation of the Intelligence Community Staff, which supports the DCI.
10.5.2 Joint Intelligence Resource Management. Joint intelligence programs and resources that support multiple defense organizations across functional boundaries and mission areas are managed under JMIP and are part of the overall defense budget. JMIP-funded activities are managed under the direction of the SECDEF and include the following DoD elements:
Defense Cryptologic Program (DCP). This program funds the defense-wide/joint cryptologic activities of NSA and the Service Cryptologic Elements. The JMIP Manager for the DCP is the Director, NSA.
Defense Imagery & Mapping Program (DIMAP). This program funds defense-wide GI&S activities (including production, communications, and production systems improvements) and defense imagery activities of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), as well as any defense airborne and space reconnaissance activities managed by NIMA, and not funded under either the DARP or DSRP (see below). The JMIP Manager for the DIMAP is the Director, NIMA.
Defense General Intelligence and Applications Program (DGIAP). This program is an "umbrella" for five separate programs, each of which is controlled by a separate program manager, who is responsible for the development and submission of a program objective memorandum (POM) for that program’s share of the overall JMIP funding request. The Director, DIA, as the senior uniformed intelligence officer in Defense, functions as the JMIP Coordinator for the DGIAP. As such, he assists the five DGIAP component program managers develop their program submissions, resolves programmatic issues across the DGIAP, and, in conjunction with these program managers, resolves issues across the JMIP. The five component program managers maintain and establish organizational integrity and reporting procedures, but for resource planning and programming purposes, they are linked to the combat support responsibilities of the Director, DIA, as the DGIAP Coordinator, and to the JMIP Managers of the DCP and DIMAP. The five component programs of the DGIAP are the following:
Defense Intelligence Tactical Program (DITP). This program consists of all former DIA TIARA. The program manager of the DITP is the Deputy Director, DIA.
Defense Intelligence Special Technologies Program (DISTP). This program funds certain research and development activities managed within the Office of the ASD (C3I). The program manager of the DISTP is the DASD (I&S).
Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Program (DARP). This program funds the defense-wide activities of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) and the military Services. The program manager of the DARP is the Director, DARO.
Defense Space Reconnaissance Program (DSRP). This program funds the activities of the Defense Support Project Office (DSPO). The program manager of the DSRP is the Director, NRO.
Defense Intelligence Counterdrug Program (DICP). This program funds defense-wide/joint counterdrug intelligence activities within the DoD. The program manager of the DICP is the DASD (Drug Enforcement Policy and Support).
10.5.3. Tactical Intelligence Resource Management. Tactical intelligence activities and resources organic to service-specific functions to organize, train and equip military forces for combat applications are managed under TIARA, which is part of the overall defense budget. TIARA-funded activities are managed under the direction of the SECDEF by the following DoD elements:
• Tactical-level intelligence, cryptographic and reconnaissance elements of the military services, and intelligence Reserve and Guard forces.
• Certain activities of the National Imagery & Mapping Agency (NIMA), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), all of which provide intelligence support to tactical operations.
10.5.4. How would one summarize the differences between NFIP, JMIP and TIARA? It is very important to understand and remember the three different categories of intelligence resources (national, joint and tactical) and the programs that contain these resources (NFIP, JMIP and TIARA). We can distinguish between these programs on the basis of purpose and function, composition, management, funding protection, and support.
• Purpose and function. NFIP resources provide intelligence support primarily to the national military and political leadership of the United States; while JMIP and TIARA funds provide capabilities designed primarily to respond to joint and service operational commanders’ needs for time-sensitive intelligence.
• Composition. The NFIP is a single program consisting of thirteen distinct component programs, each with its own budget and program manager. It includes large elements of intelligence within the DoD and encompasses all non-DOD intelligence in U.S. government.
• Defense NFIP Programs:
• General Defense Intelligence Program (GDIP)
• Consolidated Cryptologic Program (CCP)
• DoD Foreign Counterintelligence Program (FCIP)
• National Imagery and Mapping Agency Program (NIMAP)
• National Reconnaissance Program (NRP)
• Specialized DoD Reconnaissance Activities
• Non-Defense NFIP Program:
• Central Intelligence Agency Program (CIAP)
• Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) Program
• Department of Justice, FBI Foreign Counterintelligence Program
• Department of Treasury, Office of Intelligence Support Program
• Department of Energy, Foreign Intelligence Program
• CIA Retirement and Disability System (CIARDS)
• Community-Wide NFIP Program:
• Community Management Account (CMA)
Before moving further with this discussion, it’s important to note the relationship between the NFIP and the organizations it funds. The NFIP programs listed above and below are NOT organizations. Rather, they are sets of financial accounts that provide funds for intelligence operations and activities.
• Management. Presidential Executive Order 12333 specifically addressed the difference between the NFIP and TIARA in officially excluding from the NFIP all "activities to acquire the intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations by the United States military forces." The component programs of the NFIP are independently managed by officials known as Program Managers (PMs), who receive policy and fiscal guidance from the DCI. These managers submit their individual budgets to DCI, who approves them, consolidates them into a single NFIP budget, and monitors their execution once approved by Congress. The DCI also approves reprogramming of funds into and out of the NFIP. In contrast, JMIP and TIARA, as part of the DoD budget, fall under the control of those various activities throughout the military services and defense agencies. However, as part of the DoD budget, JMIP and TIARA are subject to coordination and oversight by the ASD (C3I) staff.
• Protection of funds. Most NFIP funds are hidden within the DoD budget and protected by a "fence" across which funds cannot be moved (i.e., reprogrammed) without the approval of the DCI. Although JMIP and TIARA funds are not "fenced," they are still protected by ASD (C3I), who must authorize their reprogramming.
• Support. There is strong mutual support provided by NFIP, JMIP and TIARA to DoD and the Intelligence Community. NFIP resources provide much of the infrastructure necessary for intelligence support to the entire U.S. military. TIARA supports the NFIP in many ways, such as training, equipment, technical support systems, and even research and development (R&D) that supports national systems.
10.6. Theory-vs-Reality. By now, the difference between national intelligence, joint and tactical intelligence should be fairly clear. You should also understand the distinctions between NFIP, JMIP and TIARA. One simpler, yet important, distinction can be made regarding assets funded under either of these intelligence programs. It is a universally true "rule of thumb" that explains the mutually exclusive nature of how intelligence assets are classified:
• Anything that is not NFIP-funded must be considered either a joint or service intelligence requirement (i.e., JMIP or TIARA) or something other than an intelligence requirement (e.g., operational).
• Anything that is not JMIP or TIARA-funded must be considered either a national-level intelligence requirement (i.e., NFIP) or something other than an intelligence requirement.
Sometimes a very fine line separates NFIP, JMIP and TIARA. As discussed earlier, intelligence can be classified as "national", "joint" or "tactical" based on a variety of criteria. Sometimes pure definitions can be stated in theory, but do not always apply to real-world situations. Do not panic; we only want to say that, in some circumstances, you will need to maintain a degree of flexibility in interpreting the definitions you have been given.
In theory, the NFIP supports decision-making at the highest levels (primarily the President, SECDEF, and Congress), while TIARA is designed primarily to support operational military commanders. In between, however, lie two very critical levels of decisionmakers: the Joint Chiefs and the Service Chiefs, and the Commanders of the Unified and Specified (U&S) Commands. It is in this "middle ground" where significant confusion existed between national and tactical intelligence. This confusion ultimately led to the creation of JMIP in 1995. Decision-makers at all levels need ready access to all types of intelligence. During operation DESERT STORM, much of the same intelligence collected, analyzed, processed, and disseminated during the Gulf War was simultaneously passed to the National Command Authority, the Joint Chiefs, the Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Central Command, and units that were deployed throughout the region. In such situations, from the standpoint of purpose or users, it is difficult to distinguish between "national" intelligence, "joint" intelligence and "tactical" intelligence.
10.6.1. Cross-Funding. Another source of confusion is that certain assets that clearly fit into one intelligence category are often funded with dollars from the other category.
10.6.1.1 TIARA Funding. An example of the above mentioned phenomenon occurred several years ago when operational and tactical-level reconnaissance requirements were identified that could not be met through the existing inventory of U-2R aircraft. Since the additional funds required to expand the inventory were not available in the NFIP, the SECDEF sought additional funds in the DoD budget to procure U-2R aircraft to support missions that fell within the scope of TIARA. Congress approved the request and the additional planes were purchased. As a result, for several years there were two versions of the same airframe: the NFIP-funded U-2R and the TIARA-funded TR-1.
10.6.1.2. GDIP Funding. This NFIP/TIARA funding anomaly continued until GDIP fiscal management responsibility was temporarily transferred from the Director, DIA to ASD (C3I) in 1991. Even though the Director of DIA was reinstated as the program manager late in the year, the action proved to be a catalyst for merging the U-2R and TR-1 programs. The transfer of the TR-1 fleet into the GDIP has resulted in an expanded NFIP-funded U-2R fleet that must now support both national and tactical missions.
10.6.1.3. Documentation. Keep in mind that despite apparent discrepancies between theory and practice, there is a method to all this madness. Despite the shortcomings, a "real system" does exist through which critical requirements are documented (where you as WSIIOs play a key role), justified (where the PEMs, FMs, and your intelligence resources division play the key role), approved, and eventually funded so that assets can be deployed to meet requirements.
10.6.1.4. Keeping Watch. It is vital that you work with intelligence resource personnel and take full advantage of all opportunities available for meeting your system/program requirements. You will soon learn to recognize and avoid the pitfalls that obstruct the unsuspecting WSIIO. Periodically review the "mechanics" of the system as you proceed through any "budget drill" or budget "reality checks."
10.7. The Capabilities Programming and Budgeting System (CPBS). Like the BPPBS, the Capabilities Programming and Budgeting System (CPBS) is an important management system used to allocate resources of the defense and intelligence communities. The CPBS is a resource management system used by the DCI to fiscally manage the programs of the NFIP. Most of the NFIP budget is buried within the program request to Congress. This is done to protect the identity and details of sensitive projects once they are put into the federal budget. The CPBS is structured three ways: hierarchy, target, and budget category:
• Hierarchy. This divides the entire NFIP into programs, expenditure centers (EC) (i.e., numerical designations that identify functionally similar and/or organizationally grouped elements within each NFIP program), and expenditure units (EUs) (which designate specific cost centers).
• Target. Every expenditure in the NFIP is directed against a target. NFIP resources are designed primarily to produce intelligence on certain target areas linked to U.S. National Security missions.
• Budget category. All requests for funding are broken into three categories: base, ongoing initiatives, and new initiatives.
- The base represents the bulk of the NFIP budget and is comprised of all existing projects, programs, and organizational activities (e.g., those programs that have reached full operation or are part of a long-term, ongoing mission).
- Ongoing initiatives are the second budget category representing projects that have previously been approved but are not yet fully operational. Each year these programs are reviewed for validity of requirements, cost and schedule.
- New initiatives consist of projects that are not yet approved, authorized, or appropriated.
As the WSIIO, you must identify the category under which your program/system falls. You can expedite the process by discussing your system’s requirements with the PEM and the using command POC.
10.8. Key Documents. You will need to access a variety of budget and planning documents in the course of your WSIIO duties. You will find that, in most cases, the very name of the document tells you which phase of the cycle is involved and whether the document represents top-down guidance, a bottom-up request, or a high-level decision. These are examples:
10.8.1. Defense Planning Guidance (DPG). Provides top-down guidance for the planning phase.
10.8.2. Program Objective Memorandum (POM). Represents a bottom-up request during the programming phase.
10.8.3. Program Decision Memorandum (PDM). Represents a high-level decision during the programming phase.
10.8.4. Budget Estimate Submission (BES). Represents a bottom-up request during the budgeting phase.
10.8.5. Program Budget Decision (PBD). Represents a high-level decision during the budgeting phase.
10.8.6. Intelligence Resource Managers Guide (IRMG). DIA manual containing detailed information on all aspects of DoD and Intelligence Community resource management. It is also available on Intelink-TS at the following URL:
Remember that your role as the WSIIO is to coordinate and identify the system requirements with your PEM and using command, in case they have to develop PBDs and Issue Papers to help defend or validate your program.
10.9. Keys to Success. Following are some suggestions that may help you understand and work within the Air Force budgeting system:
• Know where in the BPPBS cycle your project, system, or program is at any given moment.
• Identify requirements early to your PEM, FM, and intelligence resource division.
• Ensure good, clear communication with the using command throughout the overall program effort.
• Get help when you have to help develop an issue paper or review a PBD.
• Be aware that two key DoD components merge into the final President’s Budget, the BPPBS and the NFIP (CPBS).
• Remember the different schedules and structures of the systems.