a. Tie-In: During your first communications classes you learned that one of the most important means of tactical communications is the FM single channel radio. You also learned about the Radiotelephone Procedures that you
are to use on radio nets. This block of instruction will teach you how to use the Army's newest FM single channel radio -the SINCGARS radio.

b. Purpose: Your job as an intelligence officer in a maneuver unit will involve a great deal of communications since your purpose is to gather and disseminate information. FM radio is one of the main means that you will use to talk to higher headquarters, your subordinates, and to adjacent units. In order for you to be effective in your job, you must be able to use
the FM radio properly and confidently.

c. Scope: This instruction provides an understanding of the characteristics and capabilities of the SINCGARS radio and you will have the opportunity to learn the basic operating procedures of both a net member and Net Control Station.

d. Safety Considerations: During the hands on portion of this class please do not force any connections on the radio. Cable connection receptacles are made of relatively soft aluminum and can be damaged easily. If you have a problem with a connection, please raise your hand and either an AI or I will help you. Also be careful not to poke yourself or someone else in the eye with an antenna.

e. Procedure: During the first two hours of this five hour class I will explain the characteristics and capabilities of the SINCGARS radio. The following three hours will be dedicated to teaching you how to actually operate the radio. During this part you will be using the radios on the desk in front of you. I will explain each step of the start up procedure and net entry procedure. Then you will actually perform the operations yourselves. Although this class is not testable on your commo exam, you will have to perform your own net opening procedures during the radio lab and you will most certainly be using this
radio at your unit.

Start IC

Show Characteristics a. Characteristics

(1) The first thing that I need to point out to you is the fact that this radio is designated as CCI. CCI stands for Controlled COMSEC Item. Since there is COMSEC circuitry
within this radio, it is a sensitive item. That means that it must be treated with the same care and the same precautions as an M16 or M60. And that is if it does not have an encryption variable in it. Once you have loaded an electronic variable into the radio, the entire radio assumes the classification of the variable.

(2) Now, lets discuss the characteristics of the radio itself.
-The frequency range of this new radio is from 30 to 87.975 MHz. This is almost the same frequency range of the older generations of FM radios. The range of the SINCGARS is a little larger. This makes this new radio compatible with the old radios in the single channel mode. This is very important since not all units have been fielded with this radio yet but any unit could end up fighting alongside any other unit.

-The channel spacing of this radio is 25 KHz. The old radios had a channel spacing of 50 KHz. The frequency range and channel spacing of the old radios gave them 920 discrete frequencies for their use. The new radio with its frequency range and 25 KHz spacing has 2320 separate frequencies that it can use. This is a great improvement and is comparable to new technologies which will make it possible to squeeze 500 TV channels onto the same cables which currently carry less than 100 channels.

-In order to tune the SINCGARS radio to a given frequency you will enter that frequency into its memory through its keypad. The radio will tune its transmit and receive circuits to that frequency electronically. This radio can accept up to eight single channel frequencies in its channel memory registers
for single channel communications and it can accept up to six sets of frequency hopping data in its registers for frequency hopping operations.

-The SINCGARS radio is very versatile in terms of its radiated power. It has four power settings which give it a planning range of from only 300 meters to about 35 km. The
lowest power setting makes the radio acceptable for on site communications (site defense applications for example) where you do not want to produce a large and detectable electromagnetic signature at your site.

-The characteristic which makes this new radio so important to us is its frequency hopping capability. During our last class we talked about how radios can be detected and how
receivers can be used to locate a radio as it is transmitting. Up to this point, all tactical radios used by ground forces have op-
erated in the single channel mode. That is, they are tuned to a single, discrete frequency and they operate on it and it alone. In order to intercept, DF, or jam that radio, the enemy only needs to tune his equipment to that operating frequency. The SINCGARS radio can hop around on the spectrum in order to defeat the single channel electronic warfare functions of the enemy. The radio hops, or tunes to a different frequency at a rate of over 100 times a second. If the radio is using a large number of frequencies which are spread out over its entire available spectrum, the radio is almost impossible to detect, locate, jam, or intercept.

-This radio has a self test function which tests all circuits. The self test will tell you whether or not the radio is capable of operation before you try to use it. If the radio does have a problem, it will give you a fail code in the display window. The fail codes, for the most part have meaning for DS level and above repair personnel. The only fail code that you need to be aware of will be covered during the hands-on part of this class.

-The SINCGARS radio is also compatible with the current generation of single channel FM radios in use by our NATO allies in the single channel mode. Since our NATO allies have not yet fielded frequency hopping radios, they can only communicate on discrete frequencies.

-The SINCGARS radio is nuclear survivable in that it is hardened against the effects of EMP. Although it is not as vulnerable to EMP as other solid state electronic devices, do not think that it is invulnerable to EMP or TREE.

-As I stated earlier, the SINCGARS radio is designated as CCI because it has its COMSEC encryption circuits built right into it. All SINCGARS radios have the COMSEC embedded in them and are therefore called ICOM (for Installed COMSEC) radios. Again, always remember that once you insert a classified electronic variable into a SINCGARS radio, the radio becomes a classified item itself until the variable is erased.

Student Check:
Q: If you were deployed to a European theater
of operations and you had to communicate with
a NATO ally using FM radio, could you do so
with the SINCGARS radio?
A: Yes, but only in the single channel mode.

Show Net Identification b. Frequency Hopping Information

In order to have a net of radios which are all hopping around the spectrum things have to be pretty coordinated. One of the things you must have is a unique Net ID. The Net Control Station will normally send the Net ID over the air.

Show FH SYNC TIME At the same time the NCS sends the Net ID he also
sends the Frequency Hopping Synchronization time. This time
consists of the last two digits of the Julian date, and the hours and minutes in Zulu time. All radios in the net must be on the same time in order to hop correctly.

Show HOPSET Prior to the NCS sending the Net ID and FH SYNC
TIME the user will need to load two items. The first is the
HOPSET. One thing all the radios have to have programmed into them is the list of frequencies that they will have available to hop on. This is called the Hopset.

Show TRANSEC The second thing the user loads in preparation for frequency hopping is the TRANSEC. This is the pattern the frequencies will jump on.

Show FREQUENCY HOPPING The combination of these four elements allow for
Frequency hopping to correctly take place. The Net ID number and the Frequency Hopping Synchronization Time combine in the radio to determine where in the pattern the hopping is to start. Now, with each radio on the net filled with the proper information and with the radios synchronized, the whole net can hop around the spectrum together and communications are possible. With all of the info and synchronization, the bad guys would find it very hard to apply ECM measures against the frequency hopping net.

Show RT CLOCK FUNCTION In order to maintain communications within a frequency hopping net the clocks within each individual radio
must remain in synchronization.

Show TIME-SOI-FH DATA These two slides show where the information to run
Show Flag a frequency hopping net comes from and how the pieces are
joined together to ensure correct operations.

Show SINCGARS Family c. SINCGARS Family

(1) Just like the old VRC-12 series of radios the SINCGARS is replacing, there is a whole family of radio systems built around a few basic components. The basic components in the SINCGARS are the RT 1523 and the vehicular mount.

(2) The reason that there are a number of different configurations is that different people need different capabilities in terms of FM radio. A commander, for example, would need
to be active on at least his own command net plus the net of his immediate higher headquarters. He would therefore need at least two radios in his communications system.

(3) This slide shows the various configurations available in the SINCGARS family.
The VRC-87A is a single Receiver Transmitter (RT) in the vehicular mount. The VRC-89A is two RT's in the vehicular mount and notice that a power amplifier (PA) has been added to the mount on the left hand side. This PA amplifies the radio frequency (RF) energy being applied to the antenna and will increase the range of the radio to its full potential of 35 km. The
power amp only amplifies the signal from the bottom radio. The top radio's planning range therefore stays at only 8 km. The VRC-90A is only one RT in the mount with one PA. The VRC-92A is two radios in the mount with a PA in the mount plus another PA mounted separately. This gives both radios in this system the full long range planning range. The PRC-119A is the manpack version of the radio and is replacing the PRC-77. Obviously, since there is no mount for mounting a PA, the maximum range of the PRC-119 is going to be 8 km.

Show DISMOUNT KIT The PRC-119A uses a lithium battery as a power source. Please remember that lithium batteries like the BA-5590 are
to be considered extremely hazardous. The batteries contain substances which can be very damaging to the environment and which pose a physical hazard to a user under certain con-
ditions. If these types of batteries are shorted out, they can become extremely hot and they can "vent violently". A violent venting process is about equal in meaning to the term
"explosion. If you ever see a lithium battery which looks
bulged, if it is making a hissing or burping sound, or if it feels hot to the touch, discontinue its use immediately, set it in a safe
place and dispose of it as a hazardous waste as soon as possible. Never throw used lithium batteries away. You must always turn them back in through your supply channels for proper disposal.

-The battery is housed in a battery box which connects to the back of the RT 1523. It uses a short, flexible steel tape antenna and is carried in a standard sized ALICE pack. The pack is modified slightly in that a flap has been cut in the top flap of the pack for the antenna to stick out of.

Student Check:
Q: If you were on a dismounted patrol
and you were using a PRC-119A for
communications, how far could you plan
on going from the patrol base and still
maintain radio contact with it?
A: 8 km.

Show: RT Front Panel c. Radio Controls.

(1) We will now discuss each of the controls on the face of the radio. You will have to know what each of the knobs, receptacles, and buttons are for in order to put the radio into operation. First is the antenna connector in the upper left hand corner. This receptacle accepts either the short manpack antenna or the antenna cable which leads to a vehicular antenna.

Show Function Switch (2) The function switch is centered on the lower left side of the front panel. In the off position, the radio is completely disconnected from its power source and no memory is retained. That means that if you were operating the radio during a mission and you turned it off because you were not going to use it for
a while, you would lose all of the data that had been programmed into it and you would no longer be able to communicate on a frequency hopping net when you turned it back on.

-On the other side of the dial from the OFF position is the STBY or Standby position. In this position the power is cut off but the radio's memory is retained by a small internal 9 volt battery. This battery is called the Hold Up Battery, or HUB. The HUB is located right under the cover marked "HUB" in the middle of the right hand side of the front panel. If you are operating the radio and want to turn it off either to conserve manpack battery strength or because your vehicle is off, you should put the radio into the STBY position so that you will retain all memory. Then you will be able to communicate when you turn it back on.

-The Z-FH position is to "Z", or erase the frequency hopping data in the radio's memory. Notice that the OFF, Z-FH, and STBY positions on your radio have a line around them.
This means that these are protected positions. You can not move the function switch to these positions unless you pull out on the switch first. This is to prevent someone from accidentally moving the switch to one of these positions. You might become upset if someone accidentally turned your radio off, erased its memory and therefore caused you to lose commo.

-Just above the Z-FH position is the REM or ICM position, depending on your radio. Some are marked with REM and some are marked with ICM. This position performs the same function regardless of the marking. It is used for either remote or intercom operation. This position allows the radio to be operated from somewhere other than right from the control panel. For example, you can operate the radio from a remote location with a radio remote unit or you can operate it from many locations within an armored vehicle using intercom controls.

-The RXMT position is to be used when the radio is to be part of a retransmission system.

-Squelch on and off is to activate or disable the squelch function. In the squelch on position the speaker is not engaged unless the radio receives a 150 Hz tone on a received
radio signal. This eliminates the very irritating rushing noise that would be heard constantly without this circuit.

-Next is LD which stands for Load. Whenever you want to load data into the radio's memory, the function switch must be in the LD position.

-Last is the TST position. This is the test position. The first step in putting this radio into operation is to run it through its internal test function. This will test all of its internal circuits and give you either a good or failed indication in the window display. If the radio fails its self test, refer it to maintenance for repair.

Student Check:
Q: What does it mean when the position designator is
outlined by a box on the Function Switch?
A: It means that it is a protected position and you
must pull out on the knob before the knob will move
into that position.

Show Channel Switch (3) The channel switch has eight positions on it. The numbered positions (1 -8) are for frequency hopping operation. Each of these positions is a separate memory register which can be programmed with its own set of frequency hopping data and encryption variable. That means that each of those positions can be used for a separate frequency hopping net. For example, You could have your battalion command net on channel 1, your battalion Intel net on channel 2, the brigade command net on channel 3, and so on. In order to talk on any of those nets you would simply put your channel selector switch on the proper register.

-The MAN position is the Maintenance channel. This is a single frequency channel where all of the net initiation and maintenance functions are done.

-CUE is the cue channel. This is also a single frequency channel and can be thought of as a distress channel. If for some reason a station can not communicate with the
rest of the net in the frequency hopping mode, he would turn to the cue channel and try to contact the NCS there. The NCS radio would display the letters "CUE" in its display window in order to alert the NCS operator that there is a station on the CUE channel. The NCS would then turn his channel switch to the CUE position and try to find out why the first station was not able to communicate in the frequency hopping mode.

Show SINGLE CHANNEL (4) Above and to the right of the function switch is the Mode switch. The SC setting is for radio operation in the Single
Channel mode. In other words, in this position the radio is operating on only a single frequency and is not frequency hopping. Since single frequency transmissions are very easy
to detect and locate, this is a dangerous mode of operation.

Show FH OPERATIONS -The FH position is for frequency hopping . Here the radio will be hopping around on all of its programmed frequencies at over 100 times per second and will be very
hard to detect, jam, or locate.

-The FH-M setting is for the frequency hopping master. Only the Net Control Station can have his radio in FH-M. If you are not the NCS, never put your radio on this position or you run the risk of causing confusion on the net and you could potentially disrupt the entire net.

Show COMMANDER'S - As you can tell from the discussion, a com-
EAVESDROPPING mander can listen in on a number of nets with no problems.

Show RF Power Switch (5) As I stated earlier, the SINCGARS radio is very versatile in terms of power out and transmission range. The RF power switch controls how far the radio will transmit. Low
power gives a power out of only a small fraction of a watt and the planning range is only about 300 meters. This would be good for on site communications or commo within a patrol. Medium power raises the transmission power to produce a planning range of about 4 km, high power raises it to about 8 km and with the use of the separate power amplifier, the range is increased to 35 km.

Show Dim and Volume (6) The dim switch is located at the lower left edge of the keypad. This knob controls the brightness of the display in the display window above the keypad. If this switch is turned all the way to the left, there will be no display visible in the display window. This could fool you into thinking that there is some- thing wrong with the radio or that the battery is completely dead. If there is no display upon turning the radio on, check the
dim switch.

-The volume control knob is just to the right of the keypad. This knob will raise and lower the volume of the received signal in your handset or speaker. Notice that there is a protected position here marked "WHSP". If you pull the knob out, you will have put your radio in the "whisper" mode. This means that you can speak into the handset in a very low voice or whisper and the radio will amplify your whisper and it will be as audible at the distant station as if you had spoken into the handset at normal volume. This feature could come in handy if, for example, you were on a surveillance mission and you were so close to an enemy position that you would not want to talk loudly for fear of compromising yoursielf.

Show RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER -The COMSEC knob is above the volume knob. Two
COMSEC CONTROL of the positions on this switch are protected. PT is the Plain Text position. In this position, the COMSEC circuits are disengaged and your transmissions are not encrypted. That means that if you were talking on a single channel frequency, any other radio tuned to that frequency could hear what you were saying. Obviously, we try to not use radios in the plain text mode. The CT position is the Cipher Text position. Here your transmission is encrypted and can not be understood by anyone who does not have the same encryption circuits and variable that you are using. The TD position is the Time Delay position. You would want to put the switch here if you were operating through a retransmission station. In this case, there would be four radios in the system. Yours, two at the retrans station, and the distant station. Before the radios can communicate, all of the COMSEC circuits must be synchronized. It takes a second or two for the radios to get all lined up and by putting the COMSEC switch in the TD position, the radio will not give you the "clear to transmit" beep until all of the radios in the system are ready. RV stands for Receive Variable. It is possible for the net control station to transmit a new electronic variable to distant stations over the air. This process would be done in the RV position. Finally, the other protected position is the Z position. By putting this switch in this position, the COMSEC variables stored in the radio will be erased, or "Z'ed out". If there are no COMSEC variables in the radio, secure transmissions are not possible.

Student Check:
Q: When are three times when you have to use a single channel
frequency on a SINCGARS radio?
A: -CUE channel
-MAN channel
-When interfacing with a nonfrequency hopping radio.

Show RT KEYBOARD (7) The keypad is the means by which you will communicate with the radio. A great number of functions are accomplished with the keypad and we will discuss the use of each button on the keypad.

-The numbers are used to enter numbers as you would assume. When programming the radio you will have to enter things like frequencies and net ID numbers and the numbers on the keypad are the means for this.

At the upper right hand corner of the keypad is a frequency button. This button causes the single channel frequency for any given channel to be displayed in the window
display. If there is not a single channel frequency programmed into a given channel, then the frequency display for that particular register would be zeros.

-The ERF/OFST button is a dual purpose button. "ERF" stands for ECCM Remote Fill. Upon opening a frequency hopping net, the Net Control Station must electronically transmit
some data to the net radios. This information includes the Net ID number and the Time of Day which is used to synchronize the radios. Only the NCS uses the ERF button. If someone other
than an authorized NCS or alternate NCS ERF's a net, there is the danger that the net synchronization could get upset. This could easily disrupt communications on that net completely.

-"OFST" stands for offset. Offsetting frequencies is an old method of countering jamming. If a radio net is being jammed on a certain frequency, and all of the radios on that net detune their radios just a little bit either up or down (all of them have to go in the same direction, of course) then the effect of the jamming signal will be greatly reduced. The new SINCGARS radio retains the capability to offset single channel frequencies as an ECM countermeasure.

-The TIME button is to be used only by the NCS. This button is used to set the base clock of the NCS radio. All other radios in the net will receive this time in the ERF from
the NCS and this establishes the net synchronization time. The time which is set into the radio base clock could either be local or Zulu. However, it is important that every radio which might need to enter any given net be set to the same standard, either local or Zulu. If the base clocks of two radios are not within 59 minutes of each other, then an ERF will not be possible and communications will not occur.

-The BATT/CALL button is another dual purpose button. The life span of the lithium manpack battery is about 20 hours with a 9 to 1 receive to transmit ratio. If you were about
to depart on a patrol or other mission, it would be nice to know how much battery life remained in your battery. This button allows you to track battery usage so that you can tell about how many hours of life it should have left. This function only works if the radio is not turned off. The HUB will retain the battery usage info with the radio in the standby mode, but once the radio is turned off it would be erased along with all the other data. The
CALL function is used in conjunction with a remote set. If you needed to talk to the person at the other end of the remote system, you would use the call button to use the remoting
wire line like a telephone line.

-The SYNC button performs an interesting function. As we know, in order for the SINCGARS radio to be able to communicate in the frequency hopping mode it must be in exact
synchronization with the other radios. If a particular radio is more than 2 seconds out of synchronization with the rest of the net, then it will not be able to achieve synchronization and communicate. Each of the channels available has its own clock for synchronization of that net. The channel clocks are not atomic clocks, so they can drift off of absolute synchronization with time. If you had entered a net and then did not participate on that net for several days, then you would not have received any synch updates. It is very possible that that channel clock could have drifted more than 2 seconds off the current net time. If this were the case, then you would try to communicate on that net but would not be able to do so. The SYNC button gives you the opportunity to attempt a Passive Late Entry technique. You would press the SYNC button and wait for 3 minutes. During that time the radio is adjusting the channel clock forwards and backwards from its time in half second intervals trying to achieve synchronization. If the clock is adjusted close enough, and if the
radio receives a transmission (and therefore a synchronization update) from the net, then you will hear the net traffic and you will be able to talk. If this passive entry method fails then you would have to resort to cueing the NCS.

-LOUT stands for lockout. Using this button, it is possible to program the radio to avoid certain frequencies which are protected. There are some frequencies that are used for
very important radio communications and any kind of interference on them is unacceptable. Even a frequency hopping radio could interfere with a net dedicated solely to data transmissions for example. However, it is very unlikely that you will have to use this button since all of your frequency hopping data will be generated for you at division or corps level. The frequency hopping data (hopset and TRANSEC) will be distributed to you via the ECCM fill device.

-The STO button is used to store information in the permanent memory of the radio. You will use the STO button extensively as you program the radio.

-The star symbol on the 2 button no longer has a function.

-The LOAD button is used to pull data from the permanent memory register to a temporary holding register for manipulation.

-CMSC stands for COMSEC. This button will display the COMSEC variable number for the various registers.

Show DATA OPERATIONS -The DATA and the CHG buttons are used to display and change the data rate setting of the radio. Various digital data devices in the inventory have different transmission rates and most of them can be connected to the SINCGARS radio for digital data transmissions over an FM net. The SINCGARS radio must be programmed to match their transmission speeds so that the digital communications can occur.

Show RT KEYBOARD -The CLR button is used to clear the display window of information or so that entries may be made.

Show RT DISPLAY (8) I said earlier that you will communicate with the radio through the keypad. The radio will communicate with you through the window display above the keypad. In addition
to giving you various readouts during the programming and test functions, there are two other displays that you should be aware of. One is the signal indication on the left hand side of the display window. When a signal is received by the SINCGARS a vertical bar will appear under the "SIG". The height of the bar will correspond to the strength of the received signal. If you are trying to receive a data transmission but the data device will not accept it and the received signal is very weak, that could be the problem. You would have to ask the distant station to increase transmitting power or you may have to move. On the right side of the display is a HUB LOW indicator. If the Hold Up Battery is getting very weak, a diamond shaped light will flash under
the words HUB LOW. If the HUB is dead or missing, the diamond will stay lit.

Student Check:
Q: What is the purpose of the HUB?
A: The Hold Up Battery is a small battery which retains the
programmed memory when the radio is turned to the Stand By mode.

-If the HUB is dead or missing, and if you need to change your lithium battery (manpack configuration) you will lose all of the programmed data in the radio when you remove the lithium battery. If your radio is mounted in a vehicle and is drawing energy from the vehicular power system and you
put your radio in STBY upon shutting the vehicle off, you will again, lose all of the programmed data. So you can see that the HUB is a pretty important little battery.

Show RT Front Panel (9) At the far right of the front panel are two connector receptacles. The one on the bottom is for the handset and the one on the top is where you connect the ECCM Fill device. If you try to operate the radio with the handset connected to the top connector, you will not be able to transmit or hear received signals.

Show FH FILL DEVICE d. This is the Frequency Hopping Fill Device. This device
loaded with the HOPSET and TRANSEC by your unit's
COMSEC personnel. It is used with a Whiskey-4 cable to load
data into your SINCGARS radio. The top switch is the Off-On-Z
switch. Always connect and check the device in the off position.
If you turn the switch to the Z position you will zeroize all data.
When you press the button below the parity indicator a light will
flash if you have information stored in the slot indicated by the
number on the bottom switch.

Show KYK-13 e. This is the COMSEC fill device. It operates in the same
way as the FH Fill Device. There are only six positions available
for storage of COMSEC variables.

Show CUE & ERF f. There will be times when you are unable to enter the net
when the NCS brings the net up on the air. SINCGARS allows
for late net entry using the CUE frequency.

Show CUE g. To accomplish late net entry. The requesting station
must be on the CUE frequency, in Single Channel mode, and
in Plain Text. The NCS and any other station which has stored
the CUE frequency will receive "CUE" in their display window
when the requesting station places the call. Once "CUE" is re-
ceived the NCS switches to Single Channel, CUE frequency, and plain text and brings the new station into the net.

BEGIN DEMONSTRATION h. Demonstration. Prepare SINCGARS for single channel nonsecure operation.

(1) Background/Buildup: In order to learn how to se the SINCGARS radio, we will actually establish a frequency hopping net here in the classroom. We will do this in a very
deliberate and methodical manner. The first step we will take will be to learn how to use the radio in the single channel, nonsecure mode. Then we will employ the encryption capability of the radio and talk in a single channel secure mode. Then we will enter the proper frequency hopping data, I will act as the NCS and ERF you and then we will establish a frequency hopping net. Then I will teach you what the NCS must do in order to perform the ERF.

(2) Direction to Students: Pay close attention as I tell and show you what you must do in order to put this radio into operation. Once I have done the steps and explained them
to you, you will perform them. If you have a problem as you are doing the steps on your radio, raise your hand and either I or the Assistant Instructor will come to help you. Do not try to get ahead of me.

-Since there are more students than there are radios, you will have to take turns with them. First one person will go through the complete process and then we will repeat the entire process with the second person performing all of the steps.

(3) Steps for establishing single channel operation.

1. The first thing you must do in order to put the radio into operation is to perform the self test. Put these switches in
the following positions:
-Channel to MAN
-Power to LO
-Mode to SC
-Dim to mid-range
-Volume to mid-range

Now turn the Function switch to TST and watch the window display.

(The window display should show "Fail 5".)

The window display reads: "Fail 5". The radio is telling you that something is wrong. The problem is the COMSEC switch is in the Plain Text position and the encryption circuits are not able to be engaged. Now turn the radio off, put the COMSEC switch in the CT position and run the self test again.

Now the display says: "Good" and you should hear an alarm tone in your handset. Press the push to talk switch on your hand set twice and the alarm will turn to a steady tone. Since we are not ready to load COMSEC variables yet, turn the COMSEC switch to PT and the tone will go away.

2. Now it is time to load the single channel frequencies. These frequencies will come from your unit SOI. We will use the frequencies for the Bn CMD net on day 1 of your 1-77 Infantry Battalion SOI. The steps are as follows:

-Put the function switch to LD
-Put the channel switch on CUE
-Press the FREQ button and notice that the window display shows 00000.
-Press the CLR button and notice that the zeros disappear and blank spaces appear in their place. Now, I should
tell you that the radio has an energy saving feature in that many of the window displays will go blank after a few
seconds. If you don't interact with the radio fast enough and the screen blanks out, you will have to repeat your last function step.
-Enter the digits of the CUE frequency by pressing the proper number keys.
-Press the STO button and when the display blinks, the frequency has been stored permanently in the CUE channel register.

3. Now enter the MAN frequency by turning the channel switch to MAN, pressing the FREQ button, hitting CLR, filling the blanks in with the proper numbers, and pressing STO.

4. Each of the other channels (1 -6) may have a single channel frequency loaded into it also. It is not necessary for frequency hopping operations to have a single channel frequency loaded into a channel. We will load each channel with a frequency here though, just for the practice. Load frequency 31000 for practice.

5. Once all of the frequencies have been loaded, put the channel switch on the channel desired for communication and put the function switch to Squelch On. You are now ready to communicate in the single channel, nonsecure mode.

(4) Review of Demonstration

Key Questions

1. What is the first thing that you must do to put the radio into operation?
Perform the test function.

2. If you get a Fail 5 reading on the display window, what does that mean?
That the COMSEC switch is not set to CT or that the COMSEC circuits are bad.

3. Do you need to have a single channel frequency loaded into a channel in order to communicate in the
frequency hopping mode?

Shift to PE i. Practical Exercise Now that you have been shown how to prepare your radio for single channel operation it is time for you to prepare the radio in front of you.

(1) Objective To prepare the SINCGARS radio for single channel, non-secure operation.

(2) Directions to Students Perform the steps as I did and be sure to use the frequencies for the Bn Cmd net for day 2 in your SOI.

(3) Conduct PE Students perform the steps as outlined above. When they have completed their task tell them to put the channel switch on the CUE channel and do a radio check with them to demonstrate that the radios work.


Shift to Demonstration j. Demonstration. Prepare SINCGARS radio for secure frequency hopping operation.

(1) Background/Buildup: Now that we have used the radios for nonsecure, single channel communication, we will take the next step and prepare them for secure, frequency
hopping use.

(2) Directions to Students: Again, pay close attention. I will demonstrate the proper steps and then you will perform them.

(3) Steps for establishing secure operation.

1. Ensure your switches are on the following settings:

-Channel switch on MAN
-Power on LO
-Function on LD

2. Now take the KYK-13 fill device and connect the fill cable to its small end. Connect the other end of the fill cable to the AUD/FILL receptacle at the upper right corner of the panel. Turn the KYK-13 on and ensure that the selector switch is on position 1. We will load all of our channels with the same encryption variable for training purposes only.

3. Press the load button and you will observe that the letters "HTEK" appear. This means that the variable in the KYK-13 has been copied in the temporary holding memory of the radio.

4. Now press the STO button and the letters "STO appear in the display window. The radio is asking you where you want to store the variable.

5. Press the number 1 and you will notice that the display blinks. That means the variable has been stored in the permanent memory of channel one.

6. Load the other five channels with the same variable using the sequence LOAD, STO, # until all six channels have the COMSEC stored. You may also notice that there is a double beep in the handset as the display blinks. This is an audible verification that the variable has been loaded into permanent memory. Now turn the KYK-13 off and disconnect it from the radio.

7. Loading the ECCM data is very similar to loading the variables. Connect the fill cable to the large ECCM Fill device like you did to the KYK-13. Then, after ensuring the fill device is off, connect the cable to the AUD/FILL receptacle on the radio.

8. Put the MODE switch to the FH position since frequency hopping data is to be loaded.

9. For classroom purposes we will load the ECCM fill
data into channel 1. Turn the ECCM fill device to channel 13,
this is where I have stored your data.

10. Press the LOAD button. Now the letters and numbers in the display window identify the FH data designator.

11. Press the STO button and again, STO appears in the window. The radio is asking you where you want to store this set of frequency hopping data. Press the 1 and the display will blink telling you that the data has been stored into the permanent storage register for channel 1.

12. Once all of the required frequency hopping data has been loaded the radio has been prepared for a "cold start". That means that the radio is now ready to receive the "ERF"
or ECCM Remote Fill from the NCS. If you turn the Mode switch from FH to SC and back to FH again, the word "COLD" should appear in the display window. Now turn the ECCM fill device off and disconnect it from the radio.

(15) At this point you would simply stand by at your radio with the Function switch in the MAN position and wait for contact by the NCS.

(4) Review of Demonstration

Key Questions

1. When loading the COMSEC key (encryption variables), what position must the COMSEC switch be in?
In the CT (Cipher Text) position.

2. What is the radio's way of telling you that the information in the temporary holding memory has been transferred to the permanent channel storage?
The window display blinks.

3. When loading the frequency hopping data, what position must the MODE switch be in?
In the FH position.

4. To which receptacle are the KYK-13 and the ECCM fill device connected?
To the AUD/FILL receptacle.

5. What do you do after you have prepared your radio for cold start?
You should stand by in the MAN position and wait for contact by the NCS.

Shift to PE k. Practical Exercise Now that you have been shown how to load the encryption variables and the frequency hopping data it is time for you to load these elements into your radio.

(1) Objective To complete the steps remaining in preparing your radio for a cold start.

(2) Directions to Students Perform the steps to load the encryption variables and frequency hopping data as I have demonstrated. Notice that on some of your desks I have distributed KYK-13's and ECCM fill devices. There are not enough of them to go around to each radio so you will have to share. Please keep the noise down and again, if you have a problem, raise your hand for assistance.

(3) Conduct PE Students perform steps as outlined above. When all radios have been prepared for cold start inform the class that you will assume the role of the NCS and ERF
them. Prepare instructor radio for the ERF process.

Shift to IC l. Now, you will remember that when we discussed RTO procedures the other day, I said that a radio net normally will open at a designated time. Let's assume that all of you are to be members of a battalion command net. An alert has been called and you have all reported in and have run down to the motor pool to prepare your radios for cold start because you know that the command net is to open at H+2. You have prepared your radio and are standing by ready to hear from the NCS.

-In order to open the net, the first thing that the NCS will do is issue a net call. You will remember that the purpose of a net call is to let the NCS know who is there and who is not. Also remember that all stations respond to the net call alpha- numerically by call sign. In order to make this easy in the classroom I will give you easy call signs to use.

Assign each radio operator a sequential call sign
by row. A11, A12, A13..., B11, B12, B13... etc.

-I, as the NCS will issue a net call to the net. You will respond in sequence. Once all have responded, I will know how many of you correctly prepared your radios for cold start. Then I will ERF you. Once that is done you will have some letters and numbers in your display window (those who have correctly pre-
pared your radios, that is). As part of the ERF process, I will tell you to store the ERF'ed information into channel one and to go
to channel one. The ERF'ed information will consist of the net ID number and the NCS radio Time of Day. This information will provide the remainder of the information your radio requires to operate in a frequency hopping net. You will move your channel selector switch to channel 1 and standby for another net call from the NCS. The purpose of this one is to see who successfully received the ERF and went to channel 1 to operate in the net.

-Those stations who do not make it to that point are called "lost sheep". If you do not make it though the frequency hopping net entry process then you would remain on the MAN
channel and wait for the NCS or alternate NCS to establish contact with you and figure out what you did wrong and get you on the net.

At this time perform the net call, the ERF, and subsequent net call:

- Use NCS call sign from the SOI.
- Note who responded to the net call and who did not.
- Instruct students to watch their display windows and say:
- Net (call sign), this is NCS (call sign), stand by for cold
start, store in one, go to one, out.
- Perform ERF.
- Go to channel one and issue another net call.
- Note who responds to the net call and who does not.

-At this point we have established a frequency hopping net.

The NCS would now instruct the net to commence normal net operations or impose any restrictions that might be necessary. All stations would turn their Function switches to the SQ ON position for normal net operations.

Instruct students to turn their radios off, thereby erasing
all data. Instruct students to hand their radio to a student who did not perform the hands on steps. Once this has been done, instruct them to prepare their radios for cold start, give assistance where necessary, and reestablish the frequency hopping net.

Begin Demonstration m. Demonstration. Perform the NCS steps required for the ERF process.

(1) Background/Buildup: The next thing for you to learn is what the Net Control Station must do in order to perform the ERF. As an S2 you, or someone working for you will
be the NCS for you unit's Intel net. You should therefore be familiar with the ERF process.

(2) Directions to Students: Watch and listen as I show you what the NCS does in order to ERF the net.

(3) Steps for performing the ERF.

-First the NCS will place his Mode switch in the FH-M position, the CHAN switch stays in MAN, and the Function switch stays in LD.

-Then he will set the Time of Day on the radio's base clock. To do this he would:

-Press the TIME button. In the display window appears 00.

-Clear the display by pressing the CLR button and the display shifts to .

-Enter the last two digits of the current Julian date in these blanks and press the STO button. When the display blinks, the date has been stored.

-Press the TIME button again and in the window appears 0000.

-Clear this display with the CLR button and fill in the blanks with the current ZULU or local time depending on SOP.

-Store the time with the STO button.

-Next the net ID number must be set for the particular net that the NCS will be controlling. The net ID number will come from the SOI. The FH data that is received from higher headquarters forms the basis for the net ID number.

-Turn the Channel switch to channel 6 and press the LOAD button. In the display window appears "HF 600" which means that the FH data in channel six's storage register has been brought into the temporary holding memory.

-Press the FREQ button and then the CLR button and the display turns to "HF 6". Now enter the last two digits of the net ID number from the SOI and press the STO button. The display blinks telling you that the net ID number has been stored in register one.

-Turn the channel switch back to MAN.

-Bring the contents of channel one's register back into temporary holding memory by pressing the LOAD button and 1. Notice that the display says "HF6XX", the net ID number that you assigned to that channel.

-Perform the first net call (assuming it is time to open the net) and note who is there. Tell the net to standby for cold start, store in one, go to one (or where ever the SOP says they should place this particular net).

-Press the ERF button and notice that for a short time the word "SEND" appears in the window. This indicates that the radio is sending the ERF. It is a good idea to send the ERF a couple of times in case some of the stations were not ready.

-Once the ERF is sent, turn the channel switch to channel one (or which ever channel was ERF'ed and perform the second net call, note who responds and who does not, and direct commencement of net operation.

-If there are stations not on the FH net, you or your alternate NCS would return to the MAN channel, contact them there and work with them until they are able to successfully
receive an ERF.

(4) Review of Demonstration

Key Questions

1. In order to perform as the NCS, what position must the Mode switch be in?
In the FH-M position.

2. What does the base clock time consist of?
The last two numbers of the Julian date and the current ZULU or local time.

3. Where does the NCS find the net ID number for his net?
In the SOI.

n. During the remainder of the class we will practice bring-
ing your radios up and operational for a secure frequency
hopping net. Make sure you take turns operating the radio.


a. Review of Main Points: During this class you have learned:

-The characteristics and capabilities of the SINCGARS radio.

-How to prep the radio for cold start.

-How the NCS performs the ERF.

b. Questions of Comments:

c. Tie-in: Tomorrow, during the radio lab you will have time to practice extensively with the SINCGARS radio. You will have to successfully prepare a radio for cold start and enter a secure frequency hopping net prior to the end of class tomorrow.