TITLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL EVENT: Course of Action Development, Defense
(As of: Mar 95)

Instructor Notes Lesson Script

Lesson Plan for VGTs 1. INTRODUCTION:

a. Lesson Tie-in: During the Gulf War the world was provided an up close and personal look at doctrine in action. CNN's intense coverage of the war graphically depicted the overwhelming success enjoyed by the Allied Forces. What CNN was unable to show was the actual planning and execution process needed to achieve those outstanding results. That process is called the Army Operations Doctrine. It stresses retaining the initiative, as the Allied Forces did during the air and ground war. The second tenant the Army Operations Doctrine stresses is agility, which was aptly demonstrated when Allied Forces moved several divisions to the west and successful flanked the Iraqi's. The third tenant, Depth, was performed by the continuous air raids into Kuwait and Iraq, as well as the 82d Airborne's deep operations. Synchronization was demonstrated throughout the operation by the close and coordinated effort of all U.S. armed forces and the integration of the allies into the operation and our doctrine. The key to Army Operations Doctrine is timely and accurate intelligence. The intelligence officer is responsible for providing that intelligence. Additionally, that officer must thoroughly understand our doctrine if he/she expects to accomplish that mission.
slide 1 Objective

b. Objective: Given a division operations order, FM 5-100, FM 71-2, FM 101-5-1, FM 101-5, develop brigade defensive courses of action; achieve 75% on an objective written examination.

c. Safety: There are no safety considerations for this instructional event.

slide 2 Purpose
d. Purpose: The nature of the Army Operations Battlefield will be a severe test for the Army. The Intelligence Officer needs to understand how U.S. forces plan to meet these challenges. It is important to understand our strengths and weaknesses and how to capitalize on the enemy's weaknesses. This instructional event will provide you the understanding of how friendly courses of action are prepared and the intelligence officer's role in that process. Tactical Intelligence Officers need to know how their preparation of enemy courses of action development impact on the S3's development of friendly courses of action. The S2 prepares the intelligence estimate; therefore, he must understand the courses of action process because the basis of his estimate preparation.


VGT 3 BATTLEFIELD FRAMEWORK Sketch shows boundaries, security area, deep operations, MBA, Rear and Reserve Operations.

slide 4
a. Purposes of the Defense:
Purposes of Defense
(1) Defeat an enemy attack.
(2) Gain time.
(3) Concentrate forces elsewhere.
(4) Control key or decisive terrain.
(5) Wear down the enemy.
(6) Retain strategic, operational or tactical objectives.

b. Forms of DEFENSIVE Operations:

Slide 5a Mobile Defense
(a) Focus on the destruction of the attacking force.
slide 5b Mobile Def. Graphic
(b) May involve surrendering terrain.
(c) Must be able to form large reserve to counterattack.

(d) Normally conducted by Heavy Divisions or larger formations.

(e) Needs to have same or better mobility than enemy.

(f) Subordinate units participating in a Mobile Defense, may be conducting an AreaDefense, Mobile Defense, or Retrograde (i.e. Defense in Sector, BP, SP).

Slide 6a: Area Defense

(a) Focus on the retention of terrain.

(b) Interlocked, mutually supporting series of fixed positions (i.e. BP's, SP's).
slide 6b: Area Defense Graphic
(c) Small mobile reserves.

(d) Either heavy or light units.

(e) Engineers effort is critical.

(3) RETROGRADE OPERATIONS: Movement to the rear or away from the enemy. May be forced or voluntary but must be approved by higher commander.

slide 7a. Retrograde Ops

Slide 7b: Retrograde Opns Delay, Withdrawal, Retirement.
-Conducted when insufficient forces available to attack or defend
-Draws attacker into an area for counterattack.

(b) Withdrawals.
-Conducted to:
  • remove units from combat
  • adjust defensive positions
  • relocate forces
-May be forced or voluntary

(c) Retirement.
-Rearward movement away from enemy by a force not in contact.
-Normally covered by security forces of another unit.
Slide 8: Defense in Sector
c. Defense of a Sector:
(1) A Sector is a Defensive Area of Operations.
(2) Most common defense mission for battalions and brigades.
(3) Brigade sectors are based on METT-T and are generally 10-16 km wide and 16-24 km deep.

(4) Oriented on the general enemy avenues of approach and are used when:

(a) The situation is vague.

(b) Multiple avenues prohibit concentration of forces.

(c) Brigades align on Division A/A.

(d) Battalions align on Regimental A/A.
(e) The Commander wishes to allow maximum freedom of action for subordinate units.

Slide 9: Bde Cdr (5) The Commander shapes the battle within his sector based on:

QUESTION: What factors (a) Defensible terrain.
make terrain defensible?
(b) Where he intends to defeat the enemy
Ans: 1) Good range &
enemy Line of Site
2) similar terrain on flanks
(c) Coordination with adjacent units.

slide 10: Considerations (6) While planning the defense, the commander must:

(a) Assign sectors, battle positions or strongpoints.

(b) Provide subordinate units adequate maneuver space.

(c) Control indirect and direct fires using engagement areas (EAs) and target reference points.
Slide 11: Considerations (d) Integrate obstacles and fire support measures.
(e) Position security forces forward of the FEBA.

(f) Establish control measures.

(g) Set priority for movement.

Slide 12: Battle Positions d. Battle Positions.

(1) Most common mission for company/team.

(2) A general location and orientation of
forces on the ground from which units defend.

(3) The assigned unit stays within the general area of the position, however, Units can:

(a) Maneuver in and outside the BP as necessary to adjust fires and seize opportunities.

(b) Security forces may operate well forward and to the flanks.

(4) When a commander maneuvers his forces outside the Battle Position, he:

(a) Notifies the next higher commander

(b) Coordinates with adjacent units.

(5) The Commander must obtain permission to make a retrograde movement from the BP.

(6) Used when:

(a) Facing a single avenue of approach/mobility corridor.

(b) Commander can concentrate the fires of more than one company in EA.

Slide 13: Engagement Area e. Engagement Area.

(1) An area in which the commander intends to trap and destroy an enemy force with the massed fires of all available weapons.

(2) Its bounds are defined by maximum ranges and line of site of weapons firing into it.

(3) Utilizes TRPs (target reference point) for direct fire systems.

(3) Utilizes targets to integrate all fire support systems (indirect fire).

Slide 14 Strongpoints f. Strongpoints.

(1) 360 degree capability.

(2) Terrain must be retained.

(3) Enemy formations must be redirected or stopped.

(4) Bypassed strongpoints expose the enemy's flanks to attacks by units within the strongpoint.

(5) Can be established in isolation when tied to restrictive terrain or tied to defensive positions on their flanks.

Slide 15 Criteria g. Engagement Criteria.

(a) Utilized to synchronize and control fires into an engagement area.

(b) Visual criteria usually given, for example: "Open fire when the first ten enemy vehicles have passed TRP 3."

h. Disengagement Criteria.

(a) Used to break contact with the enemy, for example: "CO A pull back when 10 vehicles have passed TRP 3; CO B pull back when A reports he is in position or when 20 vehicles have passed TRP 4."

(b) Priorities for movement on routes during repositioning, disengagement or counterattacks must be established.
Slide 16: Graphic Control
j. Graphic Control Measures
(a) Use: Battle Positions, FEBA, Battle Hand- off line, CPs, Contact Points, Phase Lines, and lane routes.
Slide 17 Summary i. Periodic Summary:

(1) Review of major points:
During the past one and a half hours we discussed:
(a) Purposes of the defense.

(b) Forms of defensive operations.

(c) Defense of a Sector.

(d) Battle Positions.

(e) Strongpoints.

(f) Engagement Areas.

(g) Engagement and Disengagement Criteria.

Instructor Note: 10 Min. Break
(2) Questions or comments

SLIDE 18: COURSES OF ACT. Course of Action Development Overview.

"A possible plan open to the commander that would accomplish the mission."

a. Areas Considered in COA development are:

(1) WHAT-The type action.

(2) WHEN-The time the action will begin, date time group (NLT 15 1300 Jan xx).

(3) WHERE-The assigned sector, battle position or strongpoint.

(4) HOW-The use of available assets addressing the Battlefield Operating Systems in broad terms.

(5) WHY-The purpose of the operation.

  • WHAT, WHEN, and WHY are normally provided by the higher headquarters.
  • Planners are most interested in identifying WHERE and HOW.

b. Course of Action Guidelines.
The planner develops two or three COAs as a minimum. He must not develop and recommend COA based strictly on mathematical analyses. The planner/analyst must not dismiss bold, audacious actions which can achieve the element of surprise during the planning process.
Slide 19: Definition Chart 2
(1) Complete COA must consider:

c. Course of Action Development.

SLIDE 20: BRAINSTORMING (1) "Brainstorming" is how Courses of action are derived. During brainstorming, the G3/S3 should:

(a) Avoid prejudging or eliminating courses of action.

(b) Maintain an unbiased, open-minded attitude.

(c) Also consider the following:

-Principles of War

-Army Operations imperatives.

-Mission Essential tasks.

-Commander's guidance.

-Future mission/orientation.

-Effective use of C2.

-Use of NBC weapons by either side.

SLIDE 21 DIFFERENCES IN COA (2) Each course of action developed must be significantly different from any others. Some of the normal differences are:

(a) Use of reserves.

(b) Task organization.

(c) Location of Main effort.

(d) Defeat Mechanism.

(e) Scheme of maneuver.

SLIDE 22 SCREENING CRITERIA (3) Remember and use the commander's Screening Criteria.

(a) Eliminate courses of action that do not cover all the Mission Essential Tasks.

(b) Eliminate courses of action that do not meet the commander's intent.
Slide 22a PE # 1
c. Practical Exercises:

(1) Directions to Students: The instruction and exercises in this block are designed to take you step by step through the development of one Course of Action. You will work on selected requirements in your staff planning cells. At the end of each requirement, a group or groups will be selected to give a brief of their solution to the requirement. The requirements are as follows:

(a) Analyze Relative Combat Power for the 3d Bde/2AD on the basis of the Mission Analysis you conducted in a previous class.

(b) Array Initial Forces using a map and 3d Bde overlay.

(c) Begin Development of a Scheme of Maneuver by Reevaluating the Terrain and Enemy and by Reevaluating Force Ratios.

(d) Complete the Development of a Scheme of Maneuver by considering shortages, using uncommitted forces, evaluating risk and type of operation, and converting generic forces.

(e) Determine Command and Control and Maneuver Control Measures.

(f) Write a Course of Action Statement and Sketch the COA.

Slide 23: COA Development Steps
d. Steps Used to Develop a Course of Action.
Slide 24: Step 1
(1) Step 1a. Analyze relative combat power.
"Relative combat power is the overall relationship of the combat power of friendly versus enemy forces."

(a) Indicates possible types of operations.

(b) Helps determine enemy weaknesses.

(c) Uses "Avenue in Depth Method" of wargaming.

(d) Compares friendly unit to the
enemy that the mission dictates he will defeat or


SLIDE 25: ESTABLISH COMPARISON (e) Establish the Comparison Values.
-M1 CO not equal to BTR CO.
-BTR CO as Base Value of 1.0
-Develop a Value Table.

(Have Students refer to the
tables in their student hand-

Slide 26: Analyze Relative (2) Look At the WHY in the Mission
Combat Power statement.
-The WHY requires specific effects, for example, making a unit combat ineffective or completely destroy it.
A. -The Defensive "Rule of Thumb" when assigning missions (sectors, BP or SP) is:
- Restate threat and enemy strength
- Make assumptions:


The following example shows how the relative value table is used to determine the relative combat power of two forces:

Using the planning guide and ratios, the G3/S3
must identify the elements to be used to conduct the computations. He knows that his brigade is currently at 90 % strength. He can then do the computations as follows:

SLIDE 27 Task Organizations 3d BDE has the following maneuver elements:

3d Bn, 156 IN (M)
3d Bn, 9ID (L)
TF 1-156 AR
A/156 IN (M)

SLIDE 28: DEMO COMPUTING 3d Bn, 156 INF (M) 4 X M2 CO @ 2.0 = 8
(Talk the students through 9.5
the process of computing
relative combat power using 3d Bn, 9ID (L) 4 X LT CO @ 1.0 = 4
the tables and type units.) TF 1-156 AR 4 X M1A1 @ 3.2 = 12.8
A/156 IN (M) 1 X M2 @ 2.0 = 2.0
TOTAL (9.5 + 4 + 14.8) = 28.3

strength.) 28.3 X .90 = 25.5

The G2/S2 has informed the G3/S3 that the most probable enemy will be the 130th MRD, which is at 60% strength in 1st Echelon with the remainder at 75% strength.

(Krasnovian Forces) 48TH MRR (BMP)

  • The 130th MRD is equipped with BMP-1 and T-64's.

SLIDE 29: Enemy Cbt Power MRR (BMP)
9 BMP CO X 1.5 = 13.5
3 TNK CO X 1.9 = 5.7
1 AT CO X 1 = 1

REL. C.P. MRR (BMP)19.2

9 BTR CO X 1 = 9
3 TNK CO X 1.9 = 5.7
1 AT CO X 1 = 1

REL. C.P. MRR (BTR)15.7

9 TNK CO X 1.9 = 17.1
3 BMP CO X 1.5 = 4.5

REL. C.P. TR21.6


MRR (BMP) 19.2
MRR (BTR) 15.7


TOTAL 1ST ECHELON C.P. X 60% = 20.9


MRR (BMP) 19.2 TR 21.6


TOTAL 2D ECHELON C.P. X 75% = 30.6

TOTAL C.P. GRMD (20.9 + 30.6) = 51.5
Slide 31: Analyze Relative Force Ratio

SLIDE 32: FORCE RATIOS Determine Force Ratios.

-One side must always equal 1.

-U.S. Forces always on the left.

-Divide the ratio by the smaller number, for example:
25.5 : 51.5 = 1 : 2.02


-Ratio is worst acceptable case.

-At 1:3 We can defend in prepared positions.

-At 1:3.1 or greater. Defense would delay.

-At 1:2.5 We could do a Hasty Defense.

Example: If the ratio were 1:2.8, we would?
Want to Defend from prepared positions.
  • Remember 1:2.5 is the worst acceptable case for a Hasty Defense, therefore, Deliberate Defense.

Slide 34: EVALUATE RESULTS Evaluate Results.

Enemy norms indicate that, at the tactical level, the attacker must possess a 5-to-1 or 6-to-1 ratio of combat power to be successful.

-Remember Krasnovian Force Norms.
  • Require 1:5 or 1:6 ratio to attack to be successful.
Might Imply a Frontal Assault

  • They Seek Local Superiority
The ratios might point to the main or supporting attack.

(Gives examples of what we
should do if the enemy has With completed force ratios the planner can make
overwhelming superiority some conclusions (assumptions)about:
or local superiority.)
-Friendly capabilities and/or limitations in defensive situations.

-The Enemy's capabilities and/or limitations in offensive situations.

  • Remember these ratios are NOT the PREDICTED OUTCOME only a TOOL for analysis. You must also consider:
  • IPB (Terrain, Weather & OCOKA)

  • Enemy Commander's Tendencies

Final Ratio 1:2.0

Enemy does not have:

Overwhelming combat power to attack (on a broad front or conduct a frontal assault).

He is probably not his Army's main effort.

He will either attack to "fix" the 3d Bde or attempt to attack on a narrow front (penetration).

3d Bde should be able to maintain a large reserve to counter this penetration.
Slide 36: PE
(2) Conduct of Practical Exercise,
Requirement 1, Analyze Relative Combat Power:

Note: Instructor Compute the relative combat power of Your
allocates time as Bde and compare it to the relative combat
follows: Intro: 5 Min power of the enemy expected out of
Student Work: 2 Hrs. mission analysis. Your Bde is at 90% strength;
the 130 MRDs lead regiments are at 60%. All
enemy forces behind the lead regiments are at
75% strength.

(3) AAR, Requirement 1, Analyze Relative Combat Power:

(a) Your objective was to compute
the relative combat power of Your Bde at 90%;
the relative combat power of the enemy lead
regiments at 60%, the remainder of the force
at 75%.
You were then to compare the two and reach
some tentative conclusions about how the
enemy might attack and how we might defend.

(b) One group presents solution.

(c) Discuss overall performance of

the selected group and class.

(d) Clarify any errors and/or misunderstanding.
Note: Take a 10 minute
break at this time.

Slide 37: Generate Conceptual Step 2. Generate Conceptual Possibilities.
a. Brainstorming is the preferred technique for generating conceptual possibilities. The staff must not prejudge or eliminate any idea. They must remain unbiased and open-minded. Brainstorming requires time, imagination, and creativity; it is a free-wheeling mental activity whose greatest strength is its idea-building effect on participants. Apply brainstorming by:

1. Maintaining an unbiased open minded attitude
2. Avoid prejudging COA
3. Consider Principles of War, Army Operations,
C2, Commander's guidance, mission essential tasks, and NBC.

b. Second, follow the commander's guidance. The commander will:

c. Thirdly, explore each concept's possibilities and examine each to determine if it satisfies COA selection criteria. Change, add, or delete concepts as appropriate. The ultimate goal is to develop a FCOA for each possible ECOA.

Note: Turn on Projector,
resume IC Step 3. Array Initial Forces.
a. Determine the forces necessary to accomplish the mission and provide a basis for the scheme of maneuver. The planner must:

(1) Consider the mission and the commander's guidance.

(2) Consider the avenues of approach.
(Consider both friendly and enemy.)

(3) Consider Enemy courses of action.

(a) Starting with the most likely/dangerous).

(b) Consider as many as timepermits.
SLIDE 38A Decision Graphics
(4) Determine the size of unit to be arrayed.

SLIDE 39 PLANNING GUIDE b. Size of Units to be Arrayed.

(1) Planning Guide for Level of Unit to be arrayed.

Planning Level Avenue Size Mobility Corridors

Corps Division Brigades

Division Regiment Battalions

Brigade Battalion Companies

Battalion Company Platoons

  • Attempt to defend on each avenue of approach with a better than or equal to force ratio of 1-to-3, for example: A US battalion would defend on an enemy regimental avenue of approach.

SLIDE 40 DETERMINE PROPOSED (2) Determine a proposed FEBA.
(a) Defensible Terrain.
-Observation/Fields of Fire.
-Key Terrain.
-Avenues of Approach.

DEFENSIBLE TERRAIN **The analysis of the terrain using OCOKA helps determine the terrain that can and/or should be defended (i.e. Key Terrain, AA).

(b) Validate Proposed FEBA.
-Higher headquarters should
indicate the desired location of the FEBA.
-G2's terrain analysis should validate the selection or determine a recommended change.

Slide 40: Continued c. Array the Initial Forces.

(1) Emplace Generic Units at the FEBA.
Slide 41: A Competed
Initial Array (3) Completed Initial Array identifies

(a) Total number of units required to be allocated.

(b) Shortages (# required vs # available).

(c) Additional Forces (# left to allocate as needed).

(d) Base knowledge from which to make decisions. (Economy of force vs. accepting risk.)

(e) Possible alternative methods of dealing with the enemy during scheme-of-maneuver development.

NOTE: Turn off proj.
Begin Requirement 2 of d. Practical Exercise:
Practical Exercise
Slide 42: PE # 2 (1). Directions to the students: At this time you will go back to your staff planning cells and begin Requirement 2, Array Initial Forces.

(2) Conduct of Practical Exercise, Requirement 2, Array Initial Forces:

Note: The instructor -Using the following items:
allocates time as follows: *Blank sheet of acetate
Introduction: 15 min. *Completed MCOO
Student Work: 1 hr. -Plot possible company positions using:
  • Hollow rectangle (3) AAR, Requirement 2, Array Initial

(a) Array generic companies on the number of enemy AA's into the brigade AO.
(b) One group presents solution.

Note: Common student (c) Discuss overall performance of
misconceptions: the selected group and class.
1) Array gets passed
along to TFs; it does not. (d) Clarify any errors and/or
2) All available maneu- misunderstanding.
ver units must be used;
they do not, should not.
3) Must array in depth;
that comes in a later step.

SLIDE 43 DEVELOP Step 4. Develop the Scheme of Maneuver.
Definition Definition.The scheme of maneuver is the description of how arrayed forces will accomplish the commander's intent. Planners develop a scheme of maneuver by refining the initial array of forces. (Step 3)

Note: The Steps listed on a. The scheme of Maneuver provides:
these two slidesprovide the
bullets listed here. -the HOW of a course of action."
-a means for employing forces.
-basis for analysis.
-"it's the OUTLINE for the final COA.
-takes the Initial Array and Refines it.
Slide 44: Develop Scheme of
b. The scheme of maneuver includes the appropriate actions for addressing the various elements of the battlefield framework by:

Instructor Note: Show an example
Of how this is done. -Long Fields of Fire.
-Maneuver Space.
(b) Light Infantry forces are best suited for:
-Restrictive Terrain such as mountainous regions or urban terrain.
-Severely restricted terrain

-Type of Enemy and their threat doctrine determines best suited friendly force needed:
Note: Turn off slide
Slide 47 : PE c. Practical Exercise: Requirement 3
Allocate Command and Control headquarters
and Identify Maneuver Control Measures

(1). Directions to the students:
explanation of requirement 1) Assign identities to Generic Companies
and 20 min for discussion. 2) Develop 3 FCOAs to Defeat ECOAs
3) Reevaluate force ratio's
in wargaming

(2) Conduct of Practical Exercise:
- Identify headquarters for forces
- Identify maneuver control measures

(3) AAR, Requirement 3
(a) Your objective was to identify
headquarters and maneuver control measures
(b) One group presents solution

(c) Discuss overall performance of
selected group and class.

(d) Clarify any errors and/or

Note: Turn on slide
Step 6 . Course of action statement(s) and sketch(es).

SLIDE 48 WRITE AND SKETCH a. The G3/S3 prepares a course of action statement and supporting sketch for each course of action developed.

b. The statement and sketch cover WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, and WHY.

SLIDE 49 SKETCH INCLUDES c. The sketch provides a graphicdepiction of the COA statement. It includes:

(1) Control Measures.

(2) Allocated Forces (Decision Graphics).

(3) Orientation on the Terrain (Where a unit is and the direction it faces).

(4) At a minimum, the sketch includes the following:
SLIDE 50 GRAPHIC DEPICTIONS d. Uses/examples for decision
graphics in graphic depictions:

(1) Results in the Operations Overlay.
(2) Current Sitmap

SLIDE 51 COURSE OF ACTION 1 e. Give example of Course of Action
(Statement) Statement and Sketch.

Note: Turn off slide f. Practical Exercise: Requirement 4

Slide 53: PE
Allocation of time: 5 min for (1). Directions to the students:
explanation of requirement At this time you will go back to your staff
and 20 min for discussion. planning cells and begin Requirement 4,
Write the course of action statement and draw
the course of action sketch for the Course of
Action.(Ref. ST 100-9)

(2) Conduct of Practical Exercise:
- Write the Course of Action Stmt
- Draw the Course of Action Sketch

(3) AAR, Requirement 4

(a) Your objective was to Write
the course of action statement and draw the course of action sketch

(b) One group presents solution

(c) Discuss overall performance of
selected group and class.

(d) Clarify any errors and/or

g. Explain the relationship between the course of action statement/sketch and OPORD/Overlay.

(1) The course of action statement will eventually turn into paragraphs 2 and 3 of the OPORD.
(2) The course of action sketch will eventually be the basis for the operations overlay.

Slide 54: COA Development Summary

III. Now is the time for the students to perform the entire course of action development for a third course of action.


Course of Action Analysis consist of wargaming, risk assessment, and comparison of wargaming results.

IV. Note: This is the most A. Wargaming.
important block for students.
(1) Rules of Wargaming:
(a) Remain unbiased
(b) Analyze each COA independently
Slide 55: Rules of Wargaming
(c) Ensure each COA is consistent with Army Operations tenets
(d) Continually assess each COA for feasibility
(e) List advantages and disadvantages as they are discovered in the wargame
(f) Base conclusions on facts and assumptions
(g) Compare COAs during the comparison process rather than during the wargame substage
Slide 56: Wargaming Steps
(2) War-Gaming Steps:
Step 1. Gather the Tools
(3) Process of evaluating force ratios and making assumptions such as:

(a) What will the enemy do?

(b) What can I do?

SLIDE 57 WARGAMING (4) Accomplished by Analyzing Combat
(Techniques) Power 3 ways:

-Looks at all of the enemyexpected on a single mobility corridor or avenue.

-Looks at the force ratio across the entire front.

-Considersone mobility corridor or avenue at a time for a single belt of committed forces.

SLIDE 61 COMMITTED FORCES (d) Committed Forces.
(Definition) -Force in Contact (i.e in Direct Fire Range).
-Force deployed on a specific mission or COA that precludes its employment elsewhere.

SLIDE 62 WHO TO COUNT (e) Who to Count of the Committed Forces.
-Maneuver Forces
  • Do Not Count as committed:
  • Enemy Recon
Used to Show Enemy
(a) Need More than One.

(b) One per Enemy COA.

(c) Tells Who to Count.

(d) Drives the Staff Planning Train.


SLIDE 64a DEFINE BOX (1) Define Box to be evaluated, for example 1st Echelon Battalions on a Regimental AA.

COUNT ENEMY (2) Count the Enemy Committed Maneuver
Forces within the Box. Remember to go 2
levels down.

SLIDE 64b COMPUTE ENEMY (a) Compute the Enemy
STRENGTH strength.

-Using Relative Value Table.

-Using Estimated Enemy Strength.

DETERMINE NEEDED D. Determine Needed Friendly Combat
(1) What is the Mission (Needed Ratio).

(2) What does the Enemy have?

SLIDE 64c COMPUTE FRIENDLY (3) Compute the Friendly Combat

(a) Using Forces available.

NOTE: Turn off proj.
Begin Requirement 5 of E. Practical Exercise:Requirement 5
Practical Exercise
(1). Directions to the students, Requirement 3, Develop a Scheme of Maneuver: Answer the questions on Reevaluating Terrain and Enemy and Evaluating Force Ratios. Determine targets, BPs, SPs, EAs. Determine counterattack objectives/EAs and Axis of Advance for Reserves/Attack Helicopters.

(2) Conduct of Practical Exercise, Requirement 3, Develop a Scheme of Maneuver:
Note: The instructor Develop a SITEMP to evaluate how the enemy
allocates time as follows: will look initially at the FEBA. Use this
Introduction: 5 min information to reevaluate terrain/enemy,
Student Work: 45 min force ratios, targets, BPs, SPs, EAs. Determine counterattack objectives/EAs and Axis of Advance for Reserves/Attack Helicopters.

(3) AAR, Requirement 5, Develop a

Scheme of Maneuver:
Note: Instructor allocates (a) Your objective was to
time as follows: answer questions on reevaluating terrain and
Student Solution: 5 min enemy and on evaluating force ratios. This
Discussion: 10 min was to acquaint you with the types of
Clarify Errors: 5 min questions the S3 would be asking at this
Total Time: 70 min point in his planning.

(b) One group presents solution.
(c) Discuss overall performance of the selected group and class.

(d) Clarify any errors and/or misunderstanding.

SLIDE 65 SHORTAGES F. Consider Shortages.

(1) Maneuver Forces Shortage consider:

(a) Economy of Force Mission to free up forces.

(b) Asking for Change of Mission (Defend to Delay).

(2) Logistics, Personnel or Equipment shortages consider:

(a) Plan that maximizes assets available (No tank rounds, Maximize AT).

(b) Adjust plan to fit shortages (Shorten line of supply if short trucks or fuel).

(3) Use of Uncommitted Friendly Forces (Instead of Reserve or as additional mission).

SLIDE 66 RISK G. Risk "Economy of Force".

"Conducting a combat mission without having a sufficient force ratio."

  • Based on G2/S2 Analysis of enemy most probable COA, Commander can decide on Economy of Force Mission (assume risk) to concentrate forces elsewhere.

V. SLIDE 67 TYPE OF OPERATION H. Evaluating Type(s) of Operations identified as possible during the relative combat power analysis.

(1) To be Assigned to Subordinates.

(2) Reevaluate the Mission Analysis to ensure meeting Higher Commander's Intent.

(3) Examples of Missions:

SLIDE 68 DEFEAT MECHANISM I. Determining the Defeat Mechanism.

"What will cause his attack to fail."
(1) Examples of a Defeat Mechanism

(a) Counterattacks

(b) Target Development

(c) Attrit/Delay

(d) Maximizing Direct/Indirect Fires

(2) Must be Expressed using Four Components.

(a) HPT/Enemy Element (Who).

(b) Attack Means (How).

(c) Time (When).

(d) Place (Where).

(3) Must be Within Capabilities (Relative Combat Power Ratios).

(4) How do We Force the Enemy to Comply?

Slide 69: CATK OBJ J. Determine the Location of Objectives and Counterattack Objectives.

(a) Wargaming and force ratios used to evaluate whether the unit and/or the reserve will have the combat power to reach the objective.

(b) The location of the object should have an effect on the enemy: block the advance of reserve, pocket his forces, destroy his forces, or recover key terrain from him.

(c) Note that the force ratio for an attack is 1:3 but that that for a counterattack into a flank is 1:1.

VI. SLIDE 70 MAIN EFFORT K. Determining the Location of the Main Effort and Supporting Effort(s).

(1) Always Designate Main Effort.

(2) Always Designate Priority of Combat Support and Service Support.

(3) Designate the Area Where we must or intend to defeat the enemy (Defeat Mechanism).

ARRAYING ADDITIONAL L. Arraying Additional Forces.
(1) Plan for the Rest of the Sector.

(a) Does the Terrain or Enemy Change?

(b) Are Additional Troops Needed?

(c) Will Subordinates Need Additional Forces?

(d) Will Subordinates Need a Reserve?

(2) Any Remainder Not Allocated Becomes Reserve.

M. Utilize Combat Multipliers.

SLIDE 71 Combat Multipliers (1) Attack Helicopters.

(a) Cannot hold terrain without augmentation

(b) Some of the missions that may be assigned:

o Reserve
o Deep operations.
o Rear operations.
o Reinforcement of committed units.
o Attack missions with appropriate area of operations (engagement areas).

FIRE SUPPORT (2) Consider Fire Support and other support.
(a) The planner must consider how fires will support the maneuver forces by allocating:
  • Priority of Fire
  • Deep Missions (Interdiction, Counterfire & Shaping Area)
  • Engagement Areas
  • Engineer, ADA, MI support, etc.

SLIDE 72 CONVERT GENERIC N. Converting Generic Forces.
(1) Conscious decision to identify which type of forces will be allocated for the identified missions.

(2) Consider the terrain, the enemy, and the mission.

(3) Conversion uses only pure forces. Allow subordinate units to Task Organize.

(4) The initial step in identifying the task organization of the unit. (Final decisions will be made during the war game)

SCHEME OF MANEUVER (5) Scheme of maneuver must result in the commander's intent.

o. Practical Exercise: Requirement 6

Turn off Projector
Begin Requirement 6 of the
Practical Exercise
NOTE: Allow 5 min. for (1). Directions to the students:
explanation of requirement At this time you will go back to your staff
and 20 min for discussion. planning cells and begin Requirement 4,
Shortages, risk, uncommitted forces, generic

(2) Conduct of Practical Exercise:
- Identify possible shortages
- Identify Risk if any
- Change generic forces into
specific forces

(3) AAR, Requirement 6

(a) Your objective was to identify
possible shortages and risks, then convert generic forces into specific forces.

(b) One group presents solution

(c) Discuss overall performance of
selected group and class.

(d) Clarify any errors and/or


NOTE: Pass out the a. Review of Main Points.
Operations Estimate for 2 BDE
and show the students where (1) We discussed how to arrive at
the COAs are annotated. a mission statement from higher OPORD and commander's guidance.

b. Questions and Comments.

c. Tie-in. The next class will deal with preparation of an intelligence estimate based on the courses of action you developed. We will return to Course of Action Development during the offense scenario and develop courses of action for an offensive operation.