Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca SHO
Student Handout SO1KBI
MAR 94


1. Objective: Know the capabilities of R&S assets and the elements of R&S planning. Given an overview of the R&S functions, information sources, and planning considerations, each student must achieve a 70% on an objective examination.

2. Purpose: Reconnaissance and surveillance provides the commander with the information he needs to accomplish his mission. This information includes data on the terrain, weather, and the threat. R&S also provides early warning and security to the force and denies the threat information about friendly forces.

3. Reconnaissance and Surveillance Definitions and Missions

a. Reconnaissance is an active mission concerned with enemy, terrain, and/or weather. It seeks out enemy positions, obstacles, and routes. Reconnaissance missions include:

(1) Zone recon is conducted within a specific zone. The zone is defined by boundaries. It is normally associated with a deliberate attack.

(2) Area recon is conducted to obtain information concerning a specific location and the area immediately around it. It can be conducted during all offensive and defensive operations.

(3) Route recon is conducted to obtain information on the route and terrain from which the enemy could influence movement along that route. It can be conducted during all offensive and defensive operations.

b. Surveillance is passive. It implies observing a specified area or areas from a fixed concealed position. Surveillance missions include:

(1) Listening Posts / Observation Posts (LP/OP) can provide 24- hour surveillance with the proper day and night devices. OPs/LPs can be employed any place on the battlefield as long as they are provided fire support. They are not recon assets.

(2) Screen is a security operation consisting of a series of LP/OPs and designed to maintain surveillance, provide early warning to the main body, impede and harass the enemy with supporting indirect fires, and destroy enemy recon elements within its capabilities.

c. Counterreconnaissance is an operation which denies the enemy the ability to detect our attack or locate our defensive positions. CR missions require you to:

Know how the enemy reconnoiters
Be able to locate, target, and destroy enemy recon assets

Guard is the most common counterreconnaissance mission. Guard missions are conducted to provide early warning of, and to delay enemy advance. Guard missions are conducted forward of the main body by at least a company sized force. A battalion scout platoon cannot perform this mission on its own.
4. R&S Assets

a. At the maneuver brigade the following R&S assets are available to the S2.

(1) Bn / TFs: The assets available to the maneuver battalions are discussed below. The Bde S2 may task the battalion in general, not specific battalion assets.

(2) Direct Support FA Battalion: Field artillery has collectors concerned with target acquisition. The DS FA battalion often has control of radars assigned to the division's Target Acquisition Battery (TAB).

Target Acquisition Radars

AN / TPQ 36 -detects mortars and artillery out to 12 km and rockets out to 24 km (3 per division)

AN / TPQ 37 -detects mortars and artillery out to 30 km and rockets out to 50 km (2 per heavy division)

(3) Direct Support MI Company: The direct support MI company provides IEW support to the brigade. The specific assets in the company will be based on METT-T but may include ground based SIGINT assets, UAV, CI, IPW, and ground surveillance systems.

(4) Engineer Battalion: The engineer battalion attached to a maneuver brigade can provide information on the location, identity, and physical description of both natural and man-made terrain features and obstacles. They can also be used to evaluate:

(a) Airfields, heliports, and LZ /DZs
(b) Defenses and fortifications
(c) Highways and LOCs
(d) Ports and harbors

(5) ADA Battery: The ADA battery performs surveillance of the airspace to provide early warning of enemy air attack and recon. The battery at brigade is linked to the division Forward Air Alert Radar (FAAR) to provide early warning of enemy air activity. This assists the S2 in locating enemy air avenues of approach.

(6) MP Platoon: In addition to their other duties in the brigade rear area, the MP platoon can collect and report information on NAI in the rear area.

(7) USAF: Each maneuver brigade that is allocated CAS sorties is assigned an Air Force Liaison Officer (ALO) to coordinate USAF support to that brigade. The Air Force is capable of conducting air reconnaissance mission in support of units down to battalion level. There are two types of air recon requests:

(a) Pre-planned requests are submitted at least 24 hours out and go through Army channels.

(b) Immediate requests are submitted less than 24 hours out and go through the ALO and USAF channels.

(8) Army Aviation: Army Aviation battalions are often OPCON to ground maneuver brigades. Some of these assets are capable of performing limited recon missions, however, most will collect information only as part of normal aviation operations.
b. At the maneuver battalion or task force the following assets are available to the Bn S2.

(1) Scout Platoon: The scout platoon is the primary R&S asset of the maneuver battalion. It can perform all types of R&S missions but must be part of a larger force to perform counterrecon missions. There are presently two types of scout platoons:

(a) Heavy Division: Scout platoons possess 30 personnel and 10 x HMMWVs (or 6 x M3 CFVs).

(b) Light / Airborne / Air Assault Division: Scout platoons possess 18 personnel and no organic vehicles.

The scouts primary mission is to conduct reconnaissance 10 -15 km (mounted) and 500 -1000m (dismounted) beyond the FEBA.

(2) Subordinate Companies: The line companies of an infantry or armor battalion can conduct reconnaissance patrols and man LP/OPs as part of the battalion R&S effort.

(3) Ground Surveillance Radars: GSRs are organic to the MI Bn but usually attached to maneuver battalions. They can be used to:

(a) Detect movement during limited visibility
(b) Monitor NAI
(c) Monitor obstacles to detect breaching
(d) Monitor flanks
(e) Monitor possible LZs / DZs

GSR Capabilities:

(f) AN/PPS-5 (Found in heavy divisions)
-Detect personnel at 6,000m
-Detect vehicles at 10,000m

(g) AN/PPS-15 (Found in light divisions)
-Detect personnel at 1,500m
-Detect vehicles at 3,000m

GSR Limitations:

(h) Active emitters
(i) Degraded by heavy rain,snow, and wind
(j) Line of Sight only

(4) REMBASS: The Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System is organic to light, airborne, and air assault MI battalions. The system consists of magnetic, infrared, and seismic-acoustic sensors, sensor monitors, and radio repeaters.

5. Planning R&S Missions

a. Before you can successfully plan and execute the R&S effort, you must understand the five phases of R&S planning. The five phases are:

(1) Determine requirements
(2) Determine resources
(3) Task resources
(4) Evaluate reporting
(5) Update collection plan

b. Determine Requirements: The initial phase requires you to determine
what to collect, when and where to collect it.

(1) PIR/IRs tell you what to collect
(2) Event template and DST tell you when and where to collect

c. Determine Resources: The next phase requires you to assess the availability and capability of all the assets you have to collect on your PIR.

d. Task Resources: Translate PIR into indicators, specific information requirements (SIR), and then specific orders or requests (SOR) for a specific asset/agency. Tell the asset/agency specifically what you want to them to look for and when. Use a matrix to show which asset/agency is capable (X) of collecting on a specific indicator and which has been tasked or requested (circled X) to collect on it.

(1) R&S Tasking Matrix


(2) R&S Overlay: the R&S overlay is a graphic depiction of your plan. This and the R&S Tasking Matrix is all anyone should need to understand and execute your plan.


(3) R&S Planning Principles: There are four principles which should be considered when developing an R&S plan. These principles are:

(a) TASK ORGANIZING- Collect the most information with the fewest assets and in the quickest way. Increases their overall effectiveness and survivability.
(b) AUGMENTING- Using numerous assets at the same time to support the R&S plan.
(c) CUEING- Using limited assets to identify or verify enemy activity or using one asset to tip off or alert another.
(d) REDUNDANCY- More than one asset covering an area. It guarantees continuous area coverage.

e. Evaluate Reporting: Is the asset accurately reporting what it sees based on its capabilities? And does the report answer the original question?

(1) Are the reports from the collectors accurate?
(2) Do the reports answer PIR?

f. Update Collection Plan: Once a PIR is satisfied, stop collecting on it and shift assets to another PIR

g. Ineffective R&S Plans: Common shortfalls found in R&S planning throughout the Army include:
(1) Lack of sufficient detail to ensure complete and effective coverage of the enemy.
(2) Lack of planning to ensure coverage of NAIs after initial contact.
(3) Scouts overtasked.