TITLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL EVENT:R&S PLANNING (DEFENSE) (As of: MAR 95)
VGT 1. R&S a. Lesson Tie-in: This block of instruction is closely related to your previous block of instruction of IPB. IPB provides most of the information necessary for your intelligence staff to perform it's mission of collection. In this six hour block of instruction you will develop an R&S plan for a defensive operation using the assets and principles we will discuss. To ensure the survivability and success of your unit, you must know how to properly utilize R&S assets and plan R&S missions. This class is an extension of the Fort Hood scenario we have used throughout CE I and II.
b. Objective: During this six hour block of instruction you will learn the capabilities of R&S assets and the elements of R&S planning. Given an overview of the R&S functions, information sources, and planning considerations, each student must achieve a 70% on an objective examination.
c. Safety Considerations: There are no specific safety considerations for this block of instruction. Risk Assessment: IV E-LOW.
d. Purpose: Many of you will be assigned as S2s or work in a S2/G2 section. To increase the survivability and mission accomplishment of your unit, you must know and understand all the facets and principles of R&S planning.
e. Procedure: During this instruction, I will explain the role of R&S assets and equipment, and I will give an overview of R&S planning . To ensure you are comprehending the material as it is presented, I will periodically ask questions. You then will break into your work groups to develop a R&S plan and overlay, using all products developed from your previous classes. Are there any questions?
BEGIN IC 2. DEFINITIONS AND MISSIONS:
VGT 2. Recon Definition a. Reconnaissance is an active mission concerned with three components: enemy, weather, and terrain. It seeks out enemy positions, obstacles, and routes by use of stealth.
VGT 3. Recon Missions b. There are three types of reconnaissance missions: Zone, Area, and Route recons
VGT 4. Zone Recon (1) Zone recon is conducted within a specific zone. The zone is defined by boundaries. It is normally associated with a deliberate attack.
VGT 5. Area recon (2) Area recon is conducted to obtain information concerning a specific location and the area immediately around it. It can be conducted during all offensive and defensive operations.
VGT 6. Route Recon (3) Route recon is conducted to obtain information on the route and terrain from which the enemy could influence movement along that route. It can be conducted during all offensive and defensive operations.
VGT 7. Surveillance c. Surveillance is a passive mission Definition concerned with observing a specific area or areas from a fixed concealed position.
VGT 8. Surveillance d. There are two basic surveillance methods: Missions LP / OPs and screens. (1) Observation Posts/Listening Posts: They can provide 24-hour surveillance with the proper day and night devices. OPs/LPs can be employed any place on the battlefield as long as they are provided fire support. They are not recon assets.
(2) Screen: A security operation consisting of a series of LP /OPs and designed to maintainsurveillance, provide early warning to the main body, impede and harass the enemy with supporting indirect fires, and destroy enemy recon elements within its capabilities.
VGT 9. Counterrecon e. CR involves the action taken to counter enemy reconnaissance and surveillance efforts. It is a combat function directed by the S3 with input from you, based upon your IPB products. The two most important IPB products are your situational and event template. To support the CR mission you must become the expert on threat reconnaissance doctrine, tactics, unit organization, equipment, and vehicles. Next, you also need to understand U.S. maneuver organizations, doctrine, tactics, and capabilities. The major Principle of Counter- reconnaissance is the combination of Lookers and Shooters: The Scout Platoon along with other collectors normally act as the looker, who are linked to the shooters. The shooters include assets such as aviation, maneuver and artillery.
VGT 10. CR Missions f. Guard: A security operation designed to prevent enemy ground observation of and direct fire against the main body. a guard force reconnoiters, attacks, defends, and delays as necessary to accomplish its mission. Remember a scout platoon cannot perform a guard mission alone (at least not for very long).
3. Assets and Capabilities.
VGT 11. BDE ASSETS a. At the Bde level, the S2 tasks units or agencies for collection, NOT specific assets. A typical brigade sized task force consists of armor or infantry battalions, a DS artillery battalion, a DS MI company, an engineer battalion, an ADA battery, a forward support battalion, an MP platoon, an Air Force Liaison Officer, and possibly an attack helicopter battalion (OPCON).
VGT 12. DS FA Bn b. FA has radars concerned with target acquisition. These collectors are organic to the Target Acquisition Battery (TAB) at DIVARTY but can provide DS coverage to a brigade. Heavy divisions currently have 3 x AN/TPQ 36 radars and 2 x AN/TPQ 37 radars. These radars are capable of:
VGT 13. TA Radars (1) AN/TPQ 36 detects mortars and artillery out to 12km, and rockets at 24km.
(2) AN/TPQ 37 detects mortars and artillery out to 30km, and rockets at 50km.
VGT 14. DS MI Co c. Each maneuver brigade will also have a direct support company from the MI battalion. This company can provide ground based signal collection and jamming, ground surveillance, UAV, and HUMINT assets to the brigade. The exact assets in each company will be based on METT-T.
VGT 15. Engineer d. The engineer battalion attached to a maneuver brigade can provide information on the location, identity, and physical description of both natural and man-made terrain features and obstacles. They can also be used to evaluate: (1) Airfields, heliports, and LZ /DZs (2) Defenses and fortifications (3) Highways and LOCs (4) Ports and harbors
VGT 16. ADA e. ADA performs continuous surveillance of the airspace above friendly forces to suppress enemy air attacks. The ADA battery at brigade is linked to the division Forward Air Alert Radar (FAAR) to provide early warning of enemy air activity. This assists the S2 in locating enemy air avenues of approach.
VGT 17. MP Plt f. In addition to their other duties in the brigade rear area, the MP platoon at brigade can collect and report information on NAI in the rear area.
VGT 18. USAF g. Each maneuver brigade that is allocated CAS sorties is assigned an Air Force Liaison Officer to coordinate USAF support to that brigade. The Air Force is capable of conducting air reconnaissance mission in support of units down to battalion level. There are two types of air recon requests: Pre-planned and immediate (1) Pre-planned requests are submitted at least 24 hours out and go through Army channels. (2) Immediate requests are submitted less than 24 hours out and go through the ALO and USAF channels.
VGT 19. Army Aviation h. This includes all types of aircraft OPCON to the ground maneuver brigade. Some of these assets are capable of performing limited recon missions, however, most will collect information only as part of normal aviation operations.
VGT 20. Bn Assets i. At the battalion level, the S2 tasks specific subordinate units of the battalion to perform R&S missions. The primary R&S asset at battalion level is the scout platoon, but all other assigned or attached elements can perform some missions.
VGT 21. Scout Plts. j. There are currently three types of scout platoons found in maneuver battalions today. In most armor or mechanized infantry battalions the scout platoon consists of 30 personnel and 10 HMMWVs, however some units still use 6 M3 Bradley CFVs. The scout platoon in light infantry, airborne, and air assault battalions consists of 18 personnel and no organic vehicles.
VGT 22. Scout Capabilities k. The scout platoon's primary missions are reconnaissance and screening. They operate out to 10-15km (mounted) and 500-1000km (dismounted) beyond the FEBA. A full strength platoon can only reconnoiter a single route during route reconnaissance (METT-T). It can reconnoiter a zone 3-5km wide. It can man six OPs for 12 hours or less and three OPs for 24 hours or more.
VGT 23. Recon Patrols l. They can operate 10-15km (mounted) and 500- 1000km (dismounted) beyond the FEBA (METT-T). It is not designed to conduct surveillance for extended periods. However, it can conduct route, area or zone recons.
VGT 24. GSRs m. The primary mission of GSR is to search, detect, and locate moving objects. It accomplishes the mission through surveillance only. Performance is degraded by heavy rain or snow and dense foliage. GSRs are organic to the MI Bn but are routinely attached to maneuver battalions. GSR missions include: Detect movement during limited visibility Monitor NAI Monitor obstacles to detect breaching Monitor flanks Monitor possible LZs / DZs
VGT 25. GSR Capabilities n. The AN/PPS-5 is found in heavy divisions and is capable of: Detecting personnel at 6,000m Detecting vehicles at 10,000m The AN/PPS-15 is found in light divisions and is capable of: Detecting personnel at 1,500m Detecting vehicles at 3,000m
VGT 26. GSR Limitations o. GSRs are limited by the fact that they are active emitters and can be detected. Their performance is degraded by heavy winds, rain, and snow. They are also limited to line of sight.
VGT 27. REMBASS p. The Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System is organic to light units only. Like battlefield sensor system the GSR, it to is surveillance only. The system consists of magnetic, infrared, and seismic-acoustic sensors, sensor monitors, and radio repeaters. The range of the sensors vary depending on the type, however, the repeater has a ground-to-ground range of 15km and a ground-to-air range of 100km.
4. FIVE PHASES OF R&S PLANNING:
VGT 28. R&S Planning a. Before you can successfully plan and execute the R&S effort, you should understand the five phases of the collection process, and the relationship of collection planning and R&S planning. The five phases are: Determine requirements Determine resources Task resources Evaluate reporting Update collection plan
VGT 29. Determine b. Identify what the commander must know requirements about the enemy, weather, and terrain to accomplish the mission. This step includes your event template, HVTL, and DST. As you can see WHAT = PIR & HVTL, WHERE & WHEN = EVENT TEMPLATE & DST. Lets look at each one closer. (1) WHAT = PIRs: Then you develop indicators of the PIR answers. Then the indicators become questions and the questions equal SIRs. (2) Next we have WHERE = EVENT TEMPLATE AND DST. As you recall from IPB, the event template provides NAIs and the DST provide DPs. (3) The final element of phase one is WHEN = EVENT TEMPLATE AND DST. The event template provides time phase lines(TPL) and the DST indicate NLT times.
VGT 30. Determine Resources b. Availability and capability means, assess what means you have to look for the specific items you have developed in the phase one.
VGT 31. Task Resources c. Means tell a specific resource what it should look for, and how it is to report information. First, before you do any tasking, you must develop specific orders and requests (SOR). SORs are developed by adding WHERE AND WHEN to SIRs developed in phase one.
VGT 32. Tasking Matrix d. This is an example of tasking matrix used in R&S planning. It is a tool used by the S2 to track which asset or agency is collecting on a specific PIR. This tool becomes more useful at division level and higher when developing a collection plan.
VGT 33. R&S Principles e. There are four principles which should be considered when developing an R&S plan. These principles are: (1) TASK ORGANIZING- Collect the most information with the fewest assets and in the quickest way. Increases their overall effectiveness and survivability. (2) AUGMENTING- Using numerous assets at the same time to support the R&S plan. (3) CUEING- Using limited assets to identify or verify enemy activity or using one asset to tip off or alert another. (4) REDUNDANCY- More than one asset covering an area. It guarantees continuous area coverage.
VGT 34. R&S Overlay f. The R&S overlay is the R&S plan in graphic form. There are two parts to the overlay. The first part is the graphic display of deployed or planned deployment of R&S assets. The second part is the marginal data. (1) Graphic display part one shown must contain: Friendly boundaries, R&S limits of responsibility, NAIs, recon control measures, primary, alternate, supplementary positions and sectors of scan. (2) Marginal Data part two consist of the standard wording found on all overlays. The administrative data is comprised of classification, overlay title, registration marks, map sheet number, map sheet series, "prepared by" line, legend and distribution. The legend contains any nonstandard FM 101-5-1 graphics used.
VGT 35. Evaluate Reporting g. Is the asset accurately reporting what it sees based on its capabilities? And does the report answer the original question?
VGT 36. Update Collection h. Do you need more information to answer the question; or is it time to shift focus?
VGT 37. Ineffective R&S i. Common shortfalls found in R&S planning throughout the Army include: (1) Lack of sufficient detail to ensure complete and effective coverage of the enemy. (2) Lack of planning to ensure coverage of NAIs after initial contact. (3) Scouts overtasked.
VGT 38. Questions j. Are there any questions?