United States Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca SH 04599
Student Handout APR 94



a. Summarize the 4 step "Target Development Process."
b. Explain the relationship between IPB and target development.
C. Determine the key staff responsibilities for target development.
d. List and implement the Target Value Analysis (TVA) tools.
e. Apply Target Selection Standards (TSS).
f. Prioritize or recommend High Value Targets (HVTS) for inclusion in the High Payoff Target List (HPTL)
g. Understand the correlation between NAIS, TAIS, HVTS, HPTs and the intelligence collection plan.


a. Indications & Warnings
b. IPB
c. Situation Development
d. Target Development & Acquisition
e. Battle Damage Assessment (BDA)
f. Force Protection

3. Principles/Philosophy:

a. Target Development Definition: The process of providing timely and accurate locations of enemy movers, shooters, emitters, and sitters that may impact on current or future operations. (FC 6-34-19/34-118)

b. Target Development Objectives:

1) To divert, limit, disrupt, delay, damage or destroy enemy capabilities.
2) Provide direct targeting data to commanders for immediate fire and maneuver in close operations.
3) Collect and correlate all source information to develop targeting data to support deep operations.

c. Key Targeting Personnel. The commander directs the targeting effort of his targeting team, the S3, S2 and FSO. The targeting team considers the friendly and enemy capabilities and attempts to determine what assets they have to accomplish the mission.

1) Commander. Provides guidance for fire support including:

a) Restatement of the mission based on the commander's analysis.

b) Guidance for the use of special weapons.
c) Specific course's of action that the commander may wish
developed or eliminated.
d) Specific target priorities, the effects desired and TDA required.
e) Approves or amends the High Payoff Target Matrix (HPTM).

2) S3. Adds substance to the commander's guidance.

a) Link between the commander and the staff.
b) Develops the initial friendly plan based on the S2's Threat Course of Action (TCOA).
c) Specifies target priorities for HPT Matrix.
d) Develops attack matrix.
e) Decides how and when to attack.
f) Establishes, with the S2, Named Areas of Interest (NAI).
g) Determines desired effects and required TDA/BDA.

3) S2. Identifies the threat, his capabilities, and likely courses of action.

a) Begins the IPB process.
b) Arrives at the probable Threat Course of Action (TCOA). c) Identifies High Value Targets (HVTs) and recommends these for the High Payoff Target Matrix (HPTM).
d) Focuses collection on High Payoff Targets (HPTs), refining PIR/IR into Specific Intelligence Requirements (SIRs) and develops the collection /R&S Plan.

4) FSO. Coordinates all non-maneuver attack means.

a) Advises S3 and commander on fire support systems.
b) Develops High Payoff Target Matrix (HPTM) with S2/S3.
c) Recommends Attack Guidance Matrix (AGM) to S3.

5) FAIO. The Field Artillery Intelligence Officer (found only at division or corps) is the liaison between the Analysis Control Element (ACE) and the attack systems.

a) Expedites dissemination of perishable targets to the Fire Support Element (FSE).
b) Identifies target data requirements to the ASPS.

4. The Targeting Process/Methodology: Targeting must be a flexible, dynamic, and continuous process. It should begin long before the battle and continue throughout the fight. It has four distinct phases or steps: Decide, Detect, Deliver, and Assess.

a. Decide.
1) The decide function provides a clear picture of the priorities applicable to the tasking of target acquisition, information processing, the selection of an attack means, and target-damage assessment (TDA/BDA).

2) Specifically, the Decide function answers the questions:

a) WHAT targets will we hit?

b) WHERE are those targets?
c) WHEN will we engage each target
d) WHO will collect to acquire the target?
e) WHICH method of attack will we use?
f) WILL we need TDA/BDA? On which targets?

3) The Decide function involves:

a) Commanders guidance
b) Developing priorities for other functions

4) IPB and Target Development are closely related. The S2 produces Doctrinal Templates that aid in the identification of High Value Targets (HVTS).-Then the S2 produces situation, and event templates to determine TCOA'S. The Staff wargames and produces the Decision Support Template, where HPT are developed.

5) Target Value Analysis (TVA)

Target Value Analysis is a method of identifying and prioritizing high value (HVT) and high payoff targets (HPT) to determine which should be attacked to achieve the greatest benefit for the resources expended. In other words, it provides a relative ranking of worth for target sets.

b) Targeting Products include: High Payoff Target List/Matrix (HPTL); Target Selection Standards (TSS); Attack Guidance Matrix (AGM); and the Intelligence Collection / R&S Plan.

6) High Value Targets (HVTs):

a) A target which is deemed important to the THREAT commander for the successful accomplishment of his mission. They are developed by using the TVA tools based on the friendly intelligence system's interpretation of the most likely Threat Course of Action (TCOA).
b) Target Spread Sheets can indicate possible HVTs.
c) Target Spread Sheets consist of seven major components:
- 13 Target Categories
- Target title and number
- Function
- Description
- Signature
- Degradation Effect
- Graphic Representation

7) High Payoff Targets (HPTs):

a) A HPT is a HVT which must be acquired and successfully attacked in order to ensure thesuccess of friendly operations. They are developed by applying TVA tools to the enemy forces based on the friendly concept of the operation.
b) Use Sensor Attack Systems Matrix to match friendly sensors with HVTs.
c) Use Target Sheets to indicate possible HPTs. Target Sheets support target spread sheets and list the critical elements of various groups which will restrict options and capabilities when attacked.
d) Target Sheets consist of seven major components:
- Title Sheet and Number
- Relative Worth Matrix
- Attack Rationale Column
- Specific HVTs
- Doctrinal Template
- Doctrinal Resume
- Failure Option
e) HPTs may be formatted for easy reference in the event matrix. This is a prioritized list of HPTs for a specific point in the battle. This matrix is prepared by the FSO/G3/S3 and the G2/S2 and approved by the commander. HPTs are the subset of HVTS that can be both acquired and attacked and are critical to the friendly commander's success.

f) HPT matrix considerations are:
- Target Value
- Order of occurrence (Where will you see the target on the battlefield?)
- ability to engage the target
- ability to defeat the target (suppress, neutralize or destroy)
- ability to locate and identify accurately

10) Target Selection Standards: Criteria by which all targeting data must be evaluated to determine if the data will lend to the production of a valid target.

a) It requires that the capabilities and limitations of collection assets be known.
b) Target Location Error (TLE) is the accuracy of location required for a specific HPT to successfully attacked by a particular attack asset.
c) Timeliness is the maximum time allowed between collection time and receipt by the attack means for successful engagement.

11) Suspect Target: A possible target that requires further correlation or additional information before it is considered a valid target. Individual report must be evaluated. The basis of reports could be targets or target indicators.

12) The recommendation of how a target should be engaged is a fire support responsibility.

13) The attack guidance, as recommended by the staff, must be approved by the commander.

14) Intelligence Collection Plan

15) Target Selection Matrix (TSM)

b. Detect

1) The detect function is perhaps the most important area for future planning. The G2/S2 is the principal figure in directing the collection management effort to detect the targets identified in the decide phase.

2) Detection assets:

a) Maneuver units
c) Fire Support
d) Combined Force Assets
e) Joint Assets
f) EAC Assets

3) It is essential that all target acquisition assets be used in the most effective and efficient manner possible. At corps and division, the Collection Management and Dissemination (CMD) section will develop and manage the collection plan. At brigade and battalion, the S2 has this job.

4) Target Report.

5) Dissemination of information as acquired.


1) The deliver phase of the targeting process executes the target attack guidance and supports the commander's battle plan once the HPTs have been identified in the DETECT phase.

2) Attack assets

a) Fire Support -artillery, mortars, CAS, Attack helicopters, naval gunfire.
b) Offensive EW
c) Maneuver

d. ASSESS/Target Damage Assessment

1) Passive-absence of activity

2) Active-active search using an asset

3) Commanders and S3s determine if TDA is required during the decide function. Often, the same asset which detected the target can be used for TDA. If the asset is not capable of performing the required Task, then the S2 must decide which collection asset can find it, or forward the RFI to the higher headquarters.

5. Targeting in a Joint Environment.

a. Coordination.

b. Terminology.

6. Targeting at CORPS and Division.

7. Targeting at Brigade and Battalion.

a. Target Numbering System.

b. Target Symbols.

c. Fire Support Coordination Measures.

d. Target List Worksheet.

e. Brigade Fire Support Execution Matrix.

f. Task Force Fire Support Execution Matrix.

8. Targeting Checklist.