Electronic Warfare Targeting

Slide 1 (Title)

1. Introduction:

a. Lesson Tie-in: Electronic Warfare Targeting is an often neglected aspect of MI. Successful military operations are the results of combined operations, including maneuver, fire support, intelligence and EA.

Slide 2 (Objectives)

b. Objectives:

-Familiarization of EA Definitions and Terms
-Overview of EWS Responsibilities
-Introduction to EPB and EW Templating
-Application of EW Planning
-Development of EWTLs

c. Safety Considerations: IV Low.

d. Purpose: The purpose is to familiarize you with EA planning.

e. Procedure: This class is taught IC with minimum lecture. Once the formal instruction is complete, students will apply this information in Practical Exercise (PE).

2. Development.

Slide 3 (Nodes)

Before we begin this lecture I want to make sure that each of you understand the concept of Electronic Attack (EA). The object of non-lethal fires is to keep the intended receiver from receiving its message traffic. So in essence we attack nodes. A node is a point where information from tow or more systems merge. They are normally time sensitive.

Use an example of a SCUD in a firing position or bridge crossing operations.

Slide 4 (Electronic Attack)

EA has two sub components, jamming and electronic deception. Jamming
is the interruption of the signal before it reaches the intended receiver. Deception is just that, we deceive the intended receiver.

Slide 5 (Types of Jamming)

There are three basic types of jamming:

-Radiation Jamming which includes:

--Spot Jamming: You attack one specific frequency
--Barrage Jamming: You attack the entire frequency spectrum
--Sweep Jamming: You attack the entire frequency spectrum; one frequency at a time.

-Reradiation Jamming is

-Reflection Jamming, an example is chaff deployed from aircraft.

Slide 6 (EA Control Measures)

We have various control measures which allow us to conduct EA. They are:

-Positive: the EA team has complete control
-Negative: the EA team has no control over times; freq's

Frequencies are classified by the following:

-TABOO- a frequency that is never attacked. Example: MEDAVAC.
-Guarded- a frequency that is temporarily providing collection to ES assets; may later become a frequency that can be jammed (an enemy freq)
-Protected- a friendly frequency that is temporarily off limits but may later become a frequency that can be jammed

Slide 7 (Electronic Warfare Section)

The EW section (EWS) is found at the G3 Plans. This section located at both Corps and Division is responsible for the planning and tasking of all EA missions needed by the friendly unit.

Responsibilities include:

-EW Planning: The EWS attends all TDP and OPLAN development and execution meetings. The EWO must be an active member during the IPB (EPB) process; wargame; and development of the EWTL to support the scheme of maneuver and current operation.

-HVTs- the EWO will develop the initial electronic HVT list and validate these targets during the wargame process.

-HPTs- the electronic HPTs will be finalized during the wargame and written into the fires portion of the OPLAN and an EWTL will be developed.

-Organic/EAC capabilities: the EWO must have complete knowledge of those assets available for execution of non-lethal fires missions.

-EPB- electronic preparation of the battlefield is jointly conducted by the SSC of the ACE and the EWS. These products will drive the planning and execution portions of the non-lethal fires. The products will be TS and will be kept in the ACE.

EW Estimate/Annex- The EWS will prepare these products for release in the OPLAN/OPORD.

EW Taskings or EWTL- is produced by the EWS and released by the G3. All non-lethal fires must be synchronized with lethal fires and coordinated.

Control Measures- are established so that they support the ongoing mission and are controlled by the EWO.

Slide 8 (Electronic Warfare Planning)

Electronic Warfare Planning Steps include:

--1. Electronic Preparation of the Battlefield
--2. Develop Strategy for use of EW
--3. ID and Task Specific Targets

Slide 9 (EPB)

When conducting EPB the EWS must focus on steps two and three. Steps one and four will be prepared by the All Source Section of the ACE.

Slide 10 (Step two)

Step two, define the battlefield environment the EWO must focus on:

-terrain for communications and noncommunications sites
-line of sight
-features which impact on the electromagnetic spectrum

By focusing on this aspect of the terrain and weather the EWO will be able to determine the best terrain for the emplacement of the threat systems we are trying to target. These areas can then become named areas of interest (NAI) during the EPB process.

Slide 11 (Step three)

Step three, define the threat the EWO must focus on:

-communications systems to include threat nets
-noncommunications emitters
-threat electronic support systems and
-threat electronic attack systems

Slide 12 (Supporting Technical Data)

The EWO in conjunction with the SSC of the ACE must prepare and provide to the EA assets technical data. This supporting data must include the following:

-enemy unit ID -Frequency -call signs -power output
-antenna type -antenna height -link distance -enemy xmitter loc
-tgt receiver location & elevation

Slide 13 (EW Intercept Zones)

The basic intercept zones for our groundbased EA assets are as indicated on this slide. VHF - 10 km; HF ground wave - 30 km; HF sky wave - 70 km

Slide 14 (Ground Based COMINT)

Ground based COMINT EA systems have about 30 km LOS to the target receivers. Example targets are: fire control nets; ADA nets; C2 nets; intelligence nets; and threat jammers.

Slide 15 (Aerial SIGINT)

Aerial EA fly's parallel to the FLOT. Technical data is unlinked to the A/C while they are in flight. A/C will conduct EA missions in support of the ground operation and in support of lethal fires.

Slide 16 (EW Targets)

EW Targets are the end result of step one. The EWO and SSC of the ACE should have completed the initial HVT list and be prepared to further develop this list into the HPT list during the impending wargame.

There are three types of EW targets:

-on call
-targets of opportunity

Slide 17 (EW Targets, step two)

The end result of step two is to have:

-an EA strategy that is synchronized with the BOS synchronization matrix.
-nonlethal fires included in the lethal fires plan
-ES committed to support nonlethal fires

Slide 18 (EW Targets, step three)

The end result of step three is:

-a validated, approved HPT list
-taskings synchronized with maneuver and fires
-an approved EWTL

Slide 19 (Conclusion)

III. Conclusion.

EA planning must begin during mission analysis. The EWO has the lead responsibility for all planning. The SSC of the ACE provides the EWS with the majority of the EPB data and the technical database. Finally, the EWS must ensure EA mission execution with organic or nonorganic assets is synchronized with lethal fires and maneuver.

This concludes the block of instruction on Communications Jamming, what are your questions?