Slide 1: EA 1. INTRODUCTI0N:
a. Tie In: Electronic Warfare has three components. You Learned the first (Electronic Support) during the previous block of instruction and now you'll learn about the second, Electrnic Attack (EA) and how it supports tactical operations.

b. Objective: Given references and a scenario, draft or quality control the appropriate EA tasking messages. This is to be done IAW graduation criteria to include drafting an ORDMSG and the EWRTM.

c. Safety Considerations: No safety requirements RAC" IV 4-Low

d. Purpose: As future platoon leaders and commanders, you must know how to make your Electronic Warfare assets force multipliers. The only way to accomplish this is to integrate them into the battle with effective tasking. EA is an effective non-lethal weapon system.

e. Procedure: I will explain EA tasking procedures, followed by a practical exercise. During the class, I will conduct periodic student checks to ensure you understand the material presented. If there are any questions, please raise your hand


Slide 2: EA Definition a. Definition of EA, EA operations, types of jamming, and finally deception.

(1) Electronic Attack: The use of electromagnetic or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability

(2) Two types of EA operations against communications are:

(a) Jamming - Preventing the passage of information

(b) Deception: Providing false information to mislead the enemy.

Slide 3: Jamming Def (3) Jamming: The deliberate radiation or reradiation of electromagnetic energy to prevent or degrade the reception ofinformation by a receiver.

Slide 4: Graphics

Slide 5: Types of Jamming (4) Types of Jamming: Radiation, Reradiation, and Reflection.

Slide 6: Radiation (a) Radiation Jamming: Involves systems that radiate electromagnetic energy. Esmaples of such systems are TRAFFIC JAM and QUICKFIX.

(b) Reradiation Jamming: Involves sytems that receive and retransmit an altered or altogether different threat signal to deceive the enemy.

(c) Reflection or Mechanical Jamming: Does not emit a signal but rather relects signals to produce false target indications.

Slide 7: Modes (5) Modes of Radiation Jamming: There are two basic modes:


Slide 8: Spot Jamming Def
Slide 9: Graphic
(6) SPOT JAMMING: The concentration of power on a very small portion of the frequency spectrum. All power is usually targeted against one frequency or station.

Slide 10: Advantages (a) Spot jamming has the following advantages:

  • All power is concentrated on a very small portion of the frequency spectrum.
  • Friendly units can still operate on nearby frequencies with minimum interference.

Slide 11: Disadvantages (b) Spot jamming has the following disadvantages:

  • Only one station can be jammed at a time.
  • The enemy can easily detune the receiver to avoid jamming.

Slide 12 Barrage Def
Slide 13: Graphics
(7) BARRAGE JAMMING: The simultaneous jamming of several frequencies or adjacent channels. All the jammer's power is spread out over a larger portion of the frequency spectrum or band width to wipe out several station at once.

Slide 14: Advantage
(a) Advantages:

  • Several Target frequencies are jammed at once.
  • Bandwidth denial

Slide 15: Disadv. (b) Disadvantages:
  • Power is spread out over distance
  • Effective range is limited
  • Jammers require considerable power (large signature)
  • Friendly communications are also jammed

Slide 16: Rerad. def. (8) Reradiation jamming: Receive-alter-etransmit a signal in order to deceive the enemy. Two types: (Note: the army has no reradiation systems in its inventory)

Slide 17: Most common rerad (a) Repeaters: Systems that receive-alter-retransmit signals to deceive the operator.
(b) Transponders: Transmit a predetermined signal when illuminated by an enemy search radar. Example: IFF system on an aircraft.

Slide 18: Refl. Jamm. (9) Reflection jamming: Also called mechanical jamming, are non-emitting devices that reflect back signals in order to create flase target indicators. The most common types are chaff, chaff rope, corner reflectors and decoys.
Slide 19: Chaff
Use 35mm tray
(a) Chaff are narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses designed to act as tiny reflectors. Like an anti-radar smoke screen that masks a target. Chaff deceives enemy AA systems (GUN DISH radar - associated with the SA-9).

Slide 20: Radar scope
use 35mm tray
(b) Chaff Rape is a form of caff consisting of long rolls of metallic foil
or wire cut for broad, low frequency responses. Chaff rope is used to deceive enemy Early Warning radar systems.

Slide 21: Corner reflec. (c) Corner Reflectors: Consist of flat, reflective surfaces connected to form a

-three dimensional object. They are used to deceive radars with flase target reflections thus forming a kind of anti-radar camouflage.

Slide 22: Corner Resflect Shoreline Example 1: False bridge
Example 2: False Coastline

slide 23 Electronic deception (10) Electronic Deception:
The deliberate, radation, reradiation, alteration, absorption enhancement or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to mislead hostile forces in the interpretation or use of information received by their electromagnetic system.

Slide 24: Decoy Tank
(d) Decoys: Fraudulent electromagnetic targets used to simulate a real target. They are targeted against enemy ground surveillance radars.
Slide 25: Deception ops.
(11) Deception Operations: Providing false information to mislead the enemy. There are three techniques:

(a) Manipulative electronic deception (MED): Altering the electromagnetic profile of friendly forces. Technical characteristics of the signal are altered.

(b) Simulative electronic deception (SED): simulating non-existing units or capabilities, or by simulating actual units or capabilities at false locations.

  • NOTE, MED and SED are accomplished by non MI elements of the force. This is coordinated by the C-E officer.
Slide 26: Questions
Student Check: You're a TA Tm Chief of a C&J Plt and given the task to conduct ICD on a specific net. You are to slow down their movement and keep them from reaching their objective. Explain how your linguists may accomplish this.

Response: The linguists must study the net and know the personalities
and operational procedures they use. Find an opening
(c) Imitative electronic deception: The most commonly used tactic is imitative communications deception (ICD). Inject false or misleading information directly into enemy communication networks - communications and non-comms.
especially if they never authenticate. If the people on the net are already confused or excited, the task could be that much easier. Impersonate someone out of the net or introduce yourself into it as an authority. Just getting into the net and declaring MOPP status could do it.

Slide 27: EA tascking
(b) Now, we'll get into actual EA mission tasking. Planning is the most critical element for successful EW operations. We will look at EA tasking from the perspective of the commander and the staff elements, all the way down to tasking the asset.

slide 28: Battle staff
(1) Staff Responsibilities:

(a) G3: Overall responsibility for all EA and EP operations. So, the S3 has the same responsibility for brigade operations.

EA is only effective when integrated with the commander's combat operations. The G3 or S3 must ensure this happens.

(b) The Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO): The supporting staff officer of the G3 that assists in the planning and coordination of EA missions.

  • The EWO coordinates with the FSE/ALO, Corps EWO and the MI BN S3.
    (d) Alternate jamming: to avoid detection and to meet mission requirements.

    (c) The COMINT Processing Cell receives the tasking through the CM and drafts the Electrnic Warfare Request for Tasking Message (EWRTM). This is where the technical data is added (frequencies, calls, locations, etc). The tasking is then passed through the MI BN S3 to the GS Company.

    (d) The GS Company Operations Platoon receives the mission and assigns it to the appropriate asset. QF is tasked directly by the Analysis and Control Element.

Slide 29: How to tgt I
(2) Considerations for EA mission planning: (a) EA integration steps:

  • Commander and G3/S3 determine what threats to concentrate on this narrows the areas of concentration.
  • G3 and G2 (S3/S2) identify the key enemy units or activities to be jammed in priority order.

Slide 30: How to tgt II
                • EWO identifies the enemy electronics used to control threat functions/weapons systems.
                • CM coordinates the tasking of jamming assets. COMINT processing cell provides the technical data needed to support the execution of the jamming missions.

Slide 31: How to tgt III
(b) Examples:

  • Orient on the tactical objective - threat is identified and priority given.
  • Next, the unit threat (ID) functions are identified and feasibility of jamming is considered against the MI BN's EA capabilities). Can recon be effectively jammed? Can enemy artillery be jammed?
  • Prioritization - continues, zone and threat functions.
    c. Now we'll go over some jamming considerations when planning a mission and the types of control mechanisms.

Slide 32: Jamming range
(1) Jamming effectiveness or jamming range are technical factors that influence operations. Factors may include target link distance, distance between the jammer and enemy receiver, antenna polarization, terrain, vegetation, and weather.

Slide 33: JSR Graphic
(a) JSR: Jammer to signal ratio. In simple terms, the jammer's signal must be stronger than the enemy transmitter signal in order to "capture" the reciever (as discussed earlier).

Slide 34: Deployment
(b) Deployment: A critical factor. EA sites are influenced by their proximity to enemy and friendly units. They are also determined by the priorities of the brigade commander they may be supporting.

(c) As a general rule, most tactical threat communications - division and below - have used the VHF spectrum. Since your assets need line of site to be effective in jamming these targets, we need to place them three to five kms from the FLOT.

(d) Communications considerations are: The coordination of logistics, reporting requirements, and EA control mechanisms, to name some.

Slide 35: EA controls
(2) Control Mechanisms: Control of jamming operations seeks to minimize the disruptive effects of jamming on friendly operations. The controls are either positive or negative.

Slide 36: Positive control
(a) Positive Controls: Imposes the most control over jamming.

(1) Authorizing specific frequencies for jamming or by publishing a list cleared for jamming. No other frequencies may be jammed withoug permission.

(2) Authorizing specific enemy functions to be jammed unless they operate on a TABOO frequency.

Slide 37: ON/OFF control
(3) On/OFF Control: A form of positive control. Allow the immediate starting and stopping of jamming. It is usually exercised by the TCP but may be held by the G3. . . . a phrase often used during this control is "Jam on Order".

Slide 38: Neg. control
(b) Negative Controls: Imposes a minimum on control or restriction on jamming or frequency usage. There are three types:

  • TABOO: Frequencies which should never be jammed by friendly forces. Examples are Medevac or DUSTOFF.
  • PROTECTED: Are frequencies used by tactical friendly forces for a particular operational requirement. The C-E officer is respnsible for obtaining the protected list.
  • GUARDED: Enemy frequencies restricted from jamming because of intelligence value.

Student Check: If you were in the COMINT Processing Cell and you were putting together technical information on a critical target, how could you ensure collection on that target continues, even during EA operations?

Response: Request that frequency be placed on a Guarded frequency list during jamming operations. That way intelligence information can still be gathered.

Slide 39: COMJAM
d. Our TRAFFICJAM and QUICKFIX assets are capable of communications jamming. We'l now go over some basic rules for tasking these specific assets.

Slide 40: Jamming Roles
(1) Jamming roles: In order to be effective at tasking, it's important to know just why we're out there.

(a) Deny critical communications: Prevent vital information from reaching the intended receiver (such as artillery nets passing target grids).

(b) Support ES operations.

  • DF operations: Keep the enemy on the net longer through sporadic jamming to allow our assets to DF them.
  • Data Base support: Take the enemy out of secure communications in order for analysts to exploit the external communications.

    (c) Mask friendly communications: Transmit specified signal parallet to the FLOT to shield friendly signal.

Slide 41: Types of Sigs.
(2) Types of jamming signals:

(a) Common types of signals

  • stepped tones
  • gull
  • wobbler

Student Check: If you were a GBCS operator and tasked to jam threat artillery nets, what methods would best accomplish this?

Response: Try to jam only critical information from being received. It will be harder for the threat element to detect if it's being jammed.

                • tone
                • random keyed cw
                • rotary
                • random noise

Slide 42: White noise
(b) White noise: The most common type of comjam signal. It's difficult for the enemy to detect it because they're most likely to think something is wrong with their equipment.

Slide 43: Rules

Slide 44: Questions?
Student Check: If you work in the CM cell of the ACE and receive a request for jamming from 2d bde S2 to jam ADA radio nets in its sector for one hour, what could you do?
Response: If there are enough assets and they're not already over-tasked, rotate the Jamming for 15 minutes intervals among the assets. If it's not possible, report those limitations to the S2.
(3) Rules for jammer operators

(a) 10 - 15 minute jamming: to avoid enemy detection. Remember, our jammers are usually within threat artillery range.

(b) 3 - 8 second bursts: to avoid DF location and appear as radio problems rather than jammers.

(c) MOVE: general rule - the jammer may have been detected; so, save the asset and move it after the mission.

(d) Alternate jamming: to avoid detection and to meet mission requirements.
Slide 45: Ea tasking Msg
e. Our final area will be the EA tasking messages. The two basic messages are the ORDER message and the EWRTM.

Slide 46: Div. EWTL

Slide 47: Bde EWTL
                • The Bde EWTL provides the S-2 the same information for EA mission planning as the division EWTL.

                  (1) EA mission tasking is done by:

                  (a) The EWO drafts the EA ORDMSG based on G3 guidance and with the help of the data on the division composite EW target list.

                  (b) The division composite EW target list organizes and identifies the necessary elements of information for developing mission tasking. The following is identified:

                • ES/EA target priority: The ES collection effort supports the EA mission by provideing collection on potential targets prior to actual execution of the jamming mission.
                • Time window: The authorized start/stop time for jamming is identified. All other times are restricted.
                • Target unit is identified.
                • Tech data availability is identified.
                • Target location is identified.
                • Target activity is indicated. Here, the critical threat function is identified and targeted in order to maximize the disruptive effects of jamming.
                • Control Mechanisms are identified
                • Coordination: Here we identify what reporting requirements we want.

                  (c) Message Examples

Slide 49 EW Mission Taskers

Slide 50 Order
(1) EA ORDMSG: In this example, we have FRAGO being used as EA tasking. FRAGOs are used when only one or two changes in the original ORDMSG are required. Here a mission statement changes in response to a change in the enemy situation.

In the mission statement, the following information is provided:

  • What targets or threat functions do we jam.
  • The authorized time window for the mission
  • Reporting requirements are provided so that the mission can be evaluated.

    (2) FRAGO: Here, the Bde S-2 DS Co. TM sends a FRAGO requesting adjustment in the collection priorities to support an upcoming SEAD mission.

    (3) EA ORDMSG: From an S-2 requesting a jamming mission - target identified and window established. Further clarification, in terms of any additional mission requirements, would either be supplied or requested later.

  • In this example, the FRAGO provides considerable flexbility to respond to rapidly changing enemy situations.
  • The Bde EWTL provides the S-2 the same information for EA mission planning as the division EWTL.

(4) EWRTM: EA asset tasking is provided by the Electronic Warfare REquest for Tasking Message (EWRTM).

  • In this example we have the voice-template version of the EWRTM to be transmitted via secure voice. Lines 1-18 are associated with EA tasking.

Slide 51: EWTRM (1-5)
Lines 1-5: identify the tasked unit, target location, nationality,

Slide 52: EWTRM (6-11)
Lines 6-11: Provide threat function, time window, and jamming priority.

Lines 12-18: Provide specific EA tech data.

Slide 53: (12-18)

Student Check: If the S-2 sends a FRAGO to you in the CM giving a time window for a jamming mission in a couple of hours, what steps would you take to prepare for the mission?

Response: Start compiling the technical information to ensure you can conduct the mission. The next step is to collect ES on those targetw where you lack tech data. If you can't gather the information in time, report it to the S-2 so they can request mission support from another source.



Slide 54 Summary

Are there any questions regarding the message we just covered?

(b) Conduct of Practical Exercise:

(c) After Action Review:
1- Restate the objective
2- Have students present and explain answers.
3- Clarify any errors or misunderstanding.

a. Review of main points: By now you should have working knowledge of what communications Ea is and what types exist. You also learned mission tasking responsiblities and channels. You should be familiar with the roles and limitations of jammers and be able to draft the appropiate tasking messages.

b. Are there any questions or comments over any of the material have covered so far?

c. Tie-in: The information covered in this class, as well as ES ops, will be useful when you are assigned to a tactical unit. All this information will be put to use when we get into the ACE ops PE.