Chapter 2


During the last decade, a record number of espionage cases have involved US service members and US Government civilian employees. Most of these cases involved "volunteers," individuals who sought FIS employment. The US Army's authority to conduct intelligence and CI activities is EO 12333. Implementation of the EO and applicable DOD directives by the US Army are in AR 381-20. To accomplish this mission, CI agents conduct investigations to enhance, maintain, and preserve the security of the US Army. See Appendix A for TTPs.


US Army CI forces conduct two types of investigations: CI investigations (also known as Subversion and Espionage Directed Against US Army and Deliberate Security Violations [SAEDA] investigations) and personnel security investigations (PSIs).

CI INVESTIGATIONS: CI investigations are national security investigations under Army CI jurisdiction. AR 381-12 requires US Army personnel, both civilian and military, to report suspicious activities. This program provides the greatest number of leads to Army CI personnel. AR 381-20 specifically lists those activities which fall under Army CI investigative jurisdiction. Types of CI investigations include

All CI investigations are controlled by the Army Central Control Office (ACCO) and network of worldwide sub-control offices (SCOs). The ACCO and SCOs were established and are operated by Headquarters, INSCOM, at the direction of the DCSINT, Headquarters, DA.

ACCO. The ACCO is located at Fort Meade, MD. The ACCO exercises technical control, review, coordination, and oversight of Army CI controlled activities, including investigations. The ACCO has the specific responsibility to

SCOs. The SCOs are responsible for the day-to-day management of CI controlled activities. The SCO will CI investigations are conducted only by CI personnel assigned or attached to units with a CI investigative mission. They have been school-trained by the United States Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca (USAIC&FH) and hold specialty skill identifier 35E, or MOS 351B or 97B, and have been issued badge and credentials; or by Army civilian employees in career field 0132 who are assigned to CI units, have been school-trained, and are issued badge and credentials. See AR 381-20, paragraph 9-4.

Local national investigators employed by overseas Army CI units who have been issued MI representative credentials may conduct investigative leads. They will not be the primary or sole investigator.

PERSONNEL SECURITY INVESTIGATIONS: AR 380-5 states that no person is entitled to knowledge of classified defense information or material solely by virtue of grade or position. This knowledge is entrusted only to those individuals whose official duties require access to the information. Persons requiring access must be investigated and receive favorable results before being cleared to receive classified material or information. Some foreign nationals and indigenous employees in overseas areas require a degree of access to perform their duties. Policy prohibits granting security clearances but permits granting of limited access authorization (LAA) following a favorable background investigation. These investigations are called LAA investigations and usually involve use of the polygraph.

PSIs are conducted outside continental United States (OCONUS) by the US Army on behalf of the Defense Investigative Service (DIS). Agents conduct PSIs to determine loyalty to the US and suitability for access to classified defense information. The investigative activity for PSIs runs the gamut from records checks, to interviews with people who know the subject of the investigation, to interviews with the subjects themselves. The complete guide for conducting PSIs is in DIS Manual 20-1-M.