This chapter describes the mission and organization of the MI battalion (collection and exploitation) (C&E). It discusses how the battalion operates with the EACIC and other agencies, forces, and commands within the theater.
The mission of the MI battalion (C&E) is to provide interrogation and CI support for EAC if separate CI and interrogation battalions are not authorized. It also coordinates closely with the TECHINT element in the exploitation of foreign materiel of intelligence interest, including items of a scientific and technical intelligence (S&TI) nature, acquired within the theater of operations. This mission includes--
The MI battalion (C&E), shown at Figure 6-1, is organized into an HHC, MI company (CI), and the MI company (interrogation).
The HHC provides Cē, administrative services, and logistic support for units of the battalion. It also provides operational coordination between the two MI companies and the EACIC. The MI company (CI) provides CI support within the theater of operations. The MI company (interrogation) (EPW) interrogates and debriefs EPWs and other persons of intelligence interest. It also translates and exploits selected documents.
The HHC, shown at Figure 6-2, includes personnel for both the battalion headquarters and the headquarters company. In addition to the battalion commander, XO, and CSM, the battalion headquarters consists of S1, S2, S3, S4, C-E staff sections, and a chaplain.
The responsibilities of these staff sections are similar to those described for the MI brigade (EAC) and other MI battalions. (See Chapters 3 and 5.) The HHC provides C, supervision, unit administration, and logistical support for the battalion.
In addition to its normal staff functions, the S3 section provides CI and technical support with a CI analysis team, polygraph team, and TSCM team. The S3 section distributes CI reports and information on battalion operations to the EACIC and supported commands.
The CI analysis team provides the focus for the conduct of MDCI analysis within the battalion. Reports and important CI information resulting from the analytical effort at the MI battalion (C&E)are forwarded to and support theater MDCI analysis conducted by the CI element in the EACIC. The CI analysis team in the battalion receives its information primarily from the battalion's CI company.
Polygraph teams provide polygraph support within the theater AO. A polygraph is used as an aid for intelligence investigations. Polygraph support includes--
The TSCM team provides technical service support for the theater and those units or organizations transiting the theater AO en route for commitment to a corps. Assisted by the S3 section, the team maintains a master schedule of inspections, supervises the operations of the various technical support services, and directs the preparation of resulting reports.
The TSCM team conducts inspections to detect hostile technical surveillance and potentially exploitable technical security hazards in areas where sensitive information is processed or discussed. This team is composed of CI agents who have received special training in operating technical and sensitive detection equipment. Team members also provide advice and assistance to units with sensitive facilities to maintain required security standards.
The MI company (CI), shown at Figure 6-3, consists of a company headquarters section, operations element, special operations element, CI element, and a counter-SIGINT (C-SIGINT) element. It--
The company commander, with the assistance of the headquarters staff, commands and controls all elements organic to the company and other CI elements which may be attached to the MI battalion (C&E).
The operations section tasks and receives reports from the subordinate elements of the company. This section maintains liaison and communications with the battalion S3 section to ensure the effective flow of tasking and reporting with the EACIC.
As the focal point of company activities, the chief of the operations section receives guidance and direction from the company commander and battalion S3 and briefs other elements of the command.
The special operations element consists of a headquarters and three special operations teams.
The special operations teams conduct CE, countersubversion, and countersabotage operations and investigations (see FM 34-60A). These teams also conduct LLSOs. CI jurisdiction includes--
These teams develop and maintain a data base on individuals with possible hostile intent within the theater AO. This is accomplished through liaison with military, civilian, and private agencies and representatives of national agencies located in the geographical region. They also conduct specialized collection operations against FISs, as directed by the MI brigade (EAC) commander. During wartime these teams conduct CE activities within the theater AO, as specified and authorized by the theater commander.
The CI element has a headquarters and up to six CI investigation teams. They conduct CI investigations, collection, and operations in support of the CI mission, as defined in FM 34-60 and FM 34-60A.
The CI investigation teams provide specialized CI support to ECB requested by the Corps G2. These requirements are determined by mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T). They also provide specialized support to the JIF.
The C-SIGINT function is a subset of CI. The C-SIGINT analytical effort is accomplished through the four-step C-SIGINT process:
The three C-SIGINT teams in this element maintain the data base of friendly unit deployment and C-E equipment, as well as unit deployment and SIGINT and radio electronic combat (REC) assets for the entire theater force. Using that information, and working within the 4-step C-SIGINT process, team members identify and verify specific threat entities and the friendly system, unit, or critical node vulnerable to the identified threat. The C-SIGINT process supports both the theater commander's OPSEC program and the planning for electronic deception operations. (See FM 90-2A for details.)
Critical nodes verified as vulnerable should be targeted to determine the nature and amount of usable information and intelligence being obtained by threat forces through active collection. Besides keeping the commander up to date on what may have been compromised, the analytical product will be valuable in formulating countermeasures.
At this point, the team will generate and recommend countermeasures designed to eliminate or minimize the vulnerability, exploit the vulnerability, and eliminate the threat. The team also evaluates the effectiveness of implemented countermeasures during the planning, execution, and post-execution phases.
The collection effort must be initiated or reinitiated at this step. All implemented countermeasures must be evaluated. If friendly C-E emissions are collected during vulnerability assessment, the results of collection serve two purposes: they verify if countermeasures were implemented and they help determine whether the countermeasures achieved the desired effect.
The MI company (interrogation), shown at Figure 6-4, consists of a company headquarters, operations section, communications section, and interrogation and exploitation (I&E) platoon.
The mission of the MI company (interrogation) is to conduct interrogations of EPWs and other personnel of intelligence interest and to exploit CEDs in Army, joint, or combined interrogation centers.
The company headquarters consists of the commander, XO, first sergeant (1SG), operations staff section, and unit supply section.
The operations section, supervised by the XO--
The communications section provides communication between the supported interrogation facility, the MI battalion (C&E), the EACIC, and interrogation "GO" teams. These teams are discussed in FM 34-52.
The I&E platoon consists of a headquarters and is task organized based on the theater of operations and the situation. This platoon forms the basis of the Army, joint, or combined interrogation facility and is generally collocated with the theater Army EPW internment facilities. GO teams from this platoon may be forward deployed to support ECB EPW facilities. This platoon conducts interrogations of EPWs and other persons of intelligence interest and exploits CEDs.
Within the MI battalion (C&E), the commander is responsible for the sensitive activities of CI, the detailed requirements of interrogations and document exploitation, and TAREX when augmented.
Publications listed in the references section, particularly TC 34-5 and FMs 34-1, 34-2, 34-3, 34-52, 34-54, 34-60, and 34-60A, establish overall doctrine. They describe general procedures and how to use and disseminate C&E products at all levels of command. To supplement the guidance in these publications, operations for the MI battalion (C&E)are discussed in two categories:
In addition to the S3 section at battalion headquarters, each company contains an organic operations section which supervises mission-related activities. The operations section in each company and battalion coordinates and supervises mission performance. The operations section receives requirements from the next higher headquarters and, according to guidance provided by the commanders concerned, submits reports and serves as POC for the coordination of all activities.
To accomplish its mission, the MI battalion (C&E) must interact with external organizations. Figure 6-5 shows the two general categories of organizations and activities that interface.
The battalion's primary POCs within the EACIC are the CI and HUMINT teams in the production section.
The comprehensive CI and interrogation missions of the battalion require coordination by each operational company with its counterparts in other US services, and with national and Allied activities in theater or local civil authorities. This is especially useful when total CI assets are coordinated toward common objectives, conserving time and effort. This type of interaction assists interrogators who exploit personnel and documents of interest to other agencies. It also contributes to the proper control, tasking, and use of human assets available within the theater of operations.
The single discipline team-human intelligence (SDT-HUMINT) analyzes and processes HUMINT requirements received at the EACIC or generated by the threat production elements. Within the EACIC the requirements are forwarded from the CM&D section to the production section, where personnel in the SDT-HUMINT coordinate to satisfy the requirements. If unable to satisfy the requirements, the SDT-HUMINT translates them into specific collection tasks and levies them on the MI battalion (C&E) for collection action. The SDT-HUMINT provides feedback to the CM&D section regarding all aspects of requirements.
The SDT-HUMINT also notifies other commands when persons or documents, after interrogation screening, are determined to be of special interest. Interrogators use knowledgeability briefs and spot reports to notify the SDT-HUMINT. These reports identify who or what the person or item is and how they might be of value to other collectors.
For example, interrogators spot an enemy naval pilot during screening. They question him on combat PIR and IR and simultaneously spot report his identity to the SDT-HUMINT. The SDT contacts the naval intelligence liaison. The liaison officer responds with source-directed requirements for interrogators to use or with specific disposition instructions.
The second POC for the battalion with the EACIC is the CI analysis section. This section conducts MDCI analysis for the COMMZ to--
The CI team interfaces closely with other elements of the production section. It exchanges critical information required to analyze the enemy's multidiscipline collection capabilities. It performs similar functions as the SDT-HUMINT in analyzing and processing CI requirements.