Detailed information about the enemy, terrain, and weather must be available for the commander to plan an operation. The commander must receive this information in time to make sound tactical decisions. Once an operation has begun and the unit has made contact with the enemy, the commander needs continual IEW support to successfully conduct combat operations. Since ACRs and separate brigades are normally subordinate to a corps, they rely on corps for many of their intelligence requirements, just as a division does.
Intelligence assets face a monumental task on the AirLand battlefield. To fully appreciate the many battlefield requirements and to properly manage all available resources, intelligence users and producers must be familiar with battlefield organizations.
This chapter describes the IEW structure supporting the ACR and separate brigade. It describes the various organizations which provide combat information or intelligence to the commander and how the S2 accesses organizations outside the unit.
The ACR is unique in the force structure. It is a combat organization which focuses on reconnaissance and security. The ACR provides reports which allow corps commanders and others to make informed decisions concerning future operations. These reconnaissance efforts take the form of route, zone, or area reconnaissance, or a combination of these types within a single mission. Information forwarded includes terrain features, trafficability, natural and artificial obstacles, and descriptions of enemy forces in the area. These missions are accomplished by using a combination of mounted, dismounted, and aerial reconnaissance. Where the enemy attempts to deny information through counterreconnaissance, the ACR is capable of fighting for that information and defeating the enemy in the process. Figure 2-1 shows the organization of the ACR.
The primary infomation-gathering asset of the ACR is the scout. Each of the armored cavalry troops has two tank and two scout platoons. The scout platoons consist of three sections, each with two vehicles. Each vehicle carries a five-man scout team. The scout teams are trained observers and are used to establish observation posts (OPs) day or night, emplace sensors, and acquire information through stealth or fire. These scout teams are used independently, or as part of a section, platoon, or troop. Once information is obtained, the scouts report it to the appropriate higher headquarters.
Like any other asset, scouts have advantages and disadvantages. Reports are real-time. Scouts report what they see at the moment A scout's activities are normally passive and do not reveal position. A trained scout reports on things not readily apparent to other assets; for example, trafficability due to soil conditions and detailed conditions of bridges and roads. On the other hard, scouts are subject to the enemy's deception and camouflage efforts and lose effectiveness after long, continuous operations.
In addition to ground troops, the ACR has a regimental aviation squadron, which maintains aeroscouts. These aeroscouts are used in several ways. They serve as target acquisition (TA) assets for both attack helicopters and artillery; they extend the range of the ground scout team; and they either augment or take the place of ground cavalry assets in areas of rugged terrain, weather permitting. The aviation squadron contains three QUICKFIX aircraft.
Each armored cavalry squadron contains a field artillery (FA) battery. These batteries deploy four fire support teams (FIST), attaching one to each line troop or company. There is also one combat observation and laser team (COLT) to deploy at squadron level. The FIST are equipped with ground laser designators and serve as an excellent TA asset. In addition to the acquisition of targets, they are trained to accurately report the amount of damage done by indirect fire and close air support (CAS). This ability greatly aids the S2 in determining enemy strength. There is no TA battery in the ACR. Therefore, there is no organic TA radar or real-time method of determining the location of enemy mortars and artillery pieces.
A combat engineer company is also in the ACR. In addition to their more normal role of obstacle construction and reduction, the engineers provide detailed information on the status and condition of roads and bridges. They inform the commander about the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy' s obstacles.
The ACR has an organic nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) company. This company performs NBC reconnaissance, decontamination, and radiological survey. This reconnaissance capability should not be overlooked by the S2 when engaging in situation development or determining the conditions of routes to objectives.
The ACR has a medical company organic to it. Medical personnel can provide information to the commander concerning the health of enemy prisoners of war (EPWs), enemy morale, logistics, possible use of biological weapons, and other items related to medical matters.
The Regimental Tactical Operations Center Support Element (RTOCSE) provides critical IEW support to ACR operations and is the nerve center for regimental IEW operations.
This element assists the regimental S2 and S3 staffs in analyzing and directing IEW and OPSEC support missions. The collection management and dissemination (CM&D) section and the IPS work under the staff supervision of the S2. The RTOCSE is organized as shown in Figure 2-2.
The RTOCSE headquarters coordinates between its operational sections and the ACR S2 and S3. The headquarters manages the RTOCSE assets in response to requirements from the S2 and S3. The RTOCSE is normally collocated with the ACR tactical operations center (TOC).
This section translates the regimental commander's intelligence requirements into specific mission taskings. CM&D is the focal point for the receipt and dissemination of combat information and intelligence. The section develops collection plans and provides input to intelligence reports, plans, annexes, and other intelligence documents. It maintains communication and coordinates with the corps CM&D.
The IPS performs all-source intelligence analysis and production. It develops and maintains an extensive intelligence data base including enemy electronic order of battle (EEOB). This section identifies gaps in the collection effort, develops OB, and provides feedback to the CM&D section for adjustments to the collection plan. It also produces tailored briefings, estimates, and other intelligence products for the commander.
The Air Force (AF) weather radio teletypewriter (RATT) section provides the required communications equipment needed by the United States Air Force (USAF) weather team supporting the ACR. This section is composed of one radio team chief and two RATT operators; it also provides its own RATT equipment. They will use mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) when it becomes available.
The telecommunications center (TCC) section provides the wire communications switchboard capability for the RTOCSE. The section is eliminated with the fielding of MSE.
Figure 2-3 shows the organization of the MI company of the ACR. The MI company provides intelligence collection, integration, and multisource analysis; EW support; and CI support on a task-organized basis. The company is organized to provide centralized control and decentralized execution. It operates under the C2 of the regimental commander. The company responds to taskings from the regimental S2 and S3. Its organization and operations are described in this and following chapters.
The MI company is structured to allow organizational flexibility and tailoring to perform its mission. The company integrates intelligence, EW, and CI support assets under the direction of the company commander. It coordinates with corps and division counterparts for mutual support. Appendix A discusses capabilities of IEW equipment found at all echelons.
The company headquarters provides C2 for assigned and attached elements. It is composed of the commander, a first sergeant (1SG), and administrative personnel.
The service support platoon provides essential supply and maintenance support to the company. Maintenance support and services are discussed in Chapter 5.
Until MSE is fielded, the communications platoon provides personnel and equipment to staff and operates the company's telecommunications and RATT facilities. It contains a headquarters, ECM operations section, TCC section, and RATT section.
The headquarters section supervises the operations of the TCC and RATT sections. It assists the company commander in managing communications nets and radio frequencies, including weather nets. The platoon headquarters also provides custodial services for all cryptographic material in the company.
The TCC section provides personnel and equipment to establish multichannel communications terminals at the technical control and analysis element (TCAE) center.
The RATT section consists of four RATT teams. It provides full duplex record traffic for tasking and reporting between the TCAE and deployed collection and jamming (C&J) platoons. This platoon will be eliminated when MSE is fielded. See Chapter 3 for a more detailed discussion of communications.
The operations support platoon provides tactical MDCI and prisoner of war interrogation (IPW) support to the commander. The platoon headquarters manages the platoon's assets in response to company taskings. It monitors interrogation and MDCI assets to ensure mission accomplishment and proper logistic support. The CI teams perform MDCI, limited investigations, collection, operations, analysis, and dissemination in support of the mission.
At the ACR, MDCI operations are constrained due to the limited number of personnel assigned and due to the great area of operations (AO) of the ACR. Many operations require corps augmentation.
The TCAE is located at the company TOC. It provides detailed asset tasking to and technical control of all SIGINT/EW assets. Via the CM&D, the TCAE receives ECM mission taskings from the ACR S3 or fire support element (FSE); it receives SIGINT and ESM tasking from the S2. The TCAE--
The interrogation teams provide interrogation support to the ACR. The interrogators screen and interrogate EMS, refugees, and detainees. As directed by the commander, they screen captured enemy documents (CEDs) for information of immediate intelligence value. Personnel conduct brief priority intelligence requirements (PIR) driven interrogations and spot report combat information. These teams are normally located at the regimental EPW collection point but may, as required, provide support directly to a squadron (usually with corps augmentation). Constraints listed for the CI teams also apply to the interrogation teams.
The surveillance platoon provides ground surveillance radar (GSR) for battlefield surveillance and early warning.
The platoon headquarters provides the interface between the MI company and the radar teams or squads. It supervises the deployment of company radar assets in response to taskings by the RTOCSE for the regimental S2.
The three GSR squads are each composed of three radars, one squad leader, and eight squad members. Normally, one squad is attached to each squadron and each squad is divided, operationally, into three radar teams.
Each EW platoon contains a headquarters, transcription and analysis (T&A) team, voice collection team, very high frequency (VHF) ECM team, and high frequency (HF)/VHF ECM team.
The platoon headquarters manages the platoon's assets in response to tasking. It monitors these assets to ensure mission accomplishment and proper logistic support.
The T&A team provides limited T&A support to the EW platoon. It coordinates analytic findings with the TCAE for intercept tipoffs and includes other intelligence products.
The voice collection team intercepts enemy HF and VHF communications. It provides limited immediate analysis of voice transmission as well as LOB or azimuth information on VHF intercepts. Collocation with the T&A team provides an analytic capability which allows immediate dissemination of combat information and intelligence.
The VHF ECM team is deployed by the EW platoon leader to jam enemy VHF communications. This team has a secondary role to support ESM missions.
The EW platoon leader deploys the HF/VHF ECM team to jam enemy HF and VHF communications and to support ESM missions as a secordary role.
The fliqht platoon provides airborne communications, intercept, DF, and jamming support. This platoon has its own maintenance personnel to ensure continued, reliable operation of the aircraft and related systems. The platoon is available only in the ACR, not in the separate brigade.
The flight platoon, which is organic to the regimental aviation squadron, is deployed under the OPCON of the MI company. Operational intelligence reports transmitted from QUICKFIX collection missions are reported directly to the TCAE of the MI company for SIGINT analysis and dissemination within the regiment. The QUICKFIX aircraft operate well forward in the ACR AO prior to combat operations. QUICKFIX missions are preplanned and on call. One aircraft is on station at all times during the specified mission timeframe, while another aircraft is enroute to or from a forward arming refueling point (FARP).
The TCAE controls QUICKFIX operations. QUICKFIX normally transmits combat information and targeting data directly to the regimental S2 .
The separate brigade, as shown at Figure 2-4, is organized like the divisional brigade. However, since the separate brigade is intended to assume independent missions, it is tailored to provide its own support.
Each of the battalions of the separate brigade has an organic scout platoon. The capabilities of the scout platoon are identical to those of an armored cavalry troop's scout platoon.
The cavalry troop of the separate brigade, where authorized, is identical in form and function to the armored cavalry troop of the ACR. It establishes screens, operates OPs, and gathers information through stealth or fire. The separate brigade has only one cavalry troop; therefore, reconnaissance missions are more limited than in the ACR.
The military police (MP) company can be a collection asset. Because they conduct battlefield circulation control, MP cover large portions of the rear area. Therefore, they are capable of reporting on the status of supply mutes; the time, location, and direction of enemy overflights; and the general state of the civilian population. MP often provide the first warning of enemy activity in friendly rear areas. This is a limited asset and cannot be everywhere at once. Information collection is a secondary duty to battlefield circulation control and rear area protection.
Although not part of the MI company, there is a TOC support element in the brigade which provides CM& D, intelligence production, and support to the USAF weather team. These capabilities are essentially identical to these in the ACR.
The MI company of the separate brigade differs only slightly from the MI company of the ACR. This company provides intelligence collection, EW, and MDCI support to the brigade commander on a task-organized basis. In addition, it provides multisource analysis through its TCAE and operations support platoon. It coordinates with corps and divisions, as appropriate, for additional technical data, access to various data bases, and exchange of information. Figure 2-5 shows the organization of the MI company (separate brigade) .
The company headquarters provides C2 for all organic and attached assets. It includes the commander, 1SG, and administrative personnel.
The service support platoon perform all the functions that the service platoon of the MI company (ACR) performs. In addition, it contains two RATT teams which provide the communications link from the TCAE to the T&A section of the collection platoon. These teams will be removed with the fielding of MSE. See Chapter 3.
Where the ACR fields two EW platoons, the separate brigade fields one collection platoon and one VHF ECM platoon. This platoon consists of a headquarters, a T&A section, and three voice collection teams. Because there are three collection team, the company can perform some DF operations, if required. Other considerations, such as terrain and the distance between assets, affect the practicality of such operations. One collection team is normally collocated with the platoon headquarters and T&A team for faster dissemination of combat information and increased security. The others are positional where they can best support the force. There are no ECM assets in this platoon.
The operations support platoon of the separate brigade contains a platoon headquarters and interrogation and CI teams identical to those in the ACR. In addition, it contains the TCAE and provides asset tasking and technical control of all organic and attached EW assets.
The GSR assets of the separate brigade are more limited than those of the ACR. There are two sections, each with three GSRs. These radar sets are normally attached to the maneuver battalions as determined by the brigade commander. The platoon headquarters assists in the deployment of the GSR on the battlefield; it serves as an interface between the MI company, the deployed teams, and the battalion S2s.
The platoon leader's responsibilities include providing advice about GSR deployment, assisting deployed squads, and ensuring that GSR teams have the support and security needed to operate. Where necessary, the platoon leader can augment the intelligence section of a battalion for a short time. This is done to provide extra reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) expertise to a battalion at a particularly critical time and place on the battlefield. Appendix B contains R&S planning guidance.
ECM support to the separate brigade is provide through the VHF ECM platoon. Figure 2-6 shows the ACR and separate brigade assets. Under the control of the TCAE, these assets are used to jam enemy VHF communications. There is no HF ECM capability in this platoon. The platoon has a secondary function of ESM. To support this function, the ECM operations section provides limited T&A capability. However, if the company task organizes in support of the brigade, this platoon will require augmentation to properly perform 24-hour T&A operations.