Figure 6-A.



The Army has developed and fielded an integrated environmental program that employs a variety of resources to assist US civil authorities in environmental activities. The Army's environmental strategy rests on the pillars of compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation. The pillars rest on a bedrock of shared national values that support the essential foundation of people, resources, communication, and organization. They also support the vision and ethic of environmental stewardship that underlies the Army program. Figure 6-1 depicts this strategy.


The ethic of environmental stewardship underlies the Army's environmental strategy.

If consistent with the unit's mission, commanders can allocate people and resources for the planning, technical assistance, oversight, and execution of environmental assistance missions.

A CH-54 "Skycrane" from Company D, 113th Aviation Battalion, Nevada National Guard, carried a slingload of construction materials from Mount Rushmore. The material had been on the mountain since 1941. The 113th removed the materials during Golden Coyote '92 in the Black Hills of South Dakota.


Environmental support missions are characterized by the time required to accomplish them:

Figure 6-1. Pillars of Army Environmental Strategy


The Army classifies environmental support as compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation. These four classifications correspond to the pillars of the Army environmental strategy, which provide direction for attaining and sustaining environmental resources stewardship.


As an environmental leader, the Army works with regulators and citizens' groups, a cooperative approach that is necessary for successful relations with the local community and other government agencies. Army assistance responds to immediate needs or is provided as a general service.

Response includes support to correct oil and hazardous material spills under the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and control of chemical incidents. General services include support to improve compliance with environmental laws and regulations. The primary compliance missions are listed in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2. Compliance Missions


Oil and hazardous material spills are common occurrences. Any release of a reportable quantity of oil or hazardous material requires an immediate response. Larger-scale, catastrophic releases may occur as a result of man-made or natural disasters. Under the NCP for response to oil and hazardous material spills, the Army provides representatives to the national response team and the 10 regional response teams for both planning and response.

On 5 January 1993, potentially volatile World War I-era liquid-filled munitions were unearthed in a residential area of Washington, DC. The location had been a chemical research site between 1917 and 1919. With support from the 101st Chemical Company, Fort Bragg, NC, the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, the Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command, the Corps of Engineers, and other local, state, and federal agencies, the cleanup began. By the last day of excavation, a total of 141 munitions had been safely unearthed.

The director of military support coordinates Army response for large-scale spills based on requests from the EPA/USCG on-scene coordinator (OSC). Small-scale releases are more common. The Army can respond directly to small-scale releases when the spill is beyond the capability of civilian response assets or the Army has jurisdiction over the spill area.

The Army can respond to oil and hazardous material spills under established procedures.

An installation commander may assist in identifying, surveying, containing, and cleaning up small-scale releases of oil and hazardous materials. The commander's installation spill response group typically consists of trained personnel from the fire department or environmental staff. When the Army employs chemical units, it does so under the Nuclear and Chemical Accident and Incident Response and Assistance (NAIRA and CAIRA) Program.

Under the NAIRA and CAIRA Program, the Army can provide an immediate or planned response to a crisis or situation involving radiological or hazardous materials. Nuclear or chemical accident or incident control (NAIC/CAIC) emergency response elements organized as an initial response force (IRF) can respond immediately to the spill site to save lives, preserve health and safety, and prevent further damage to the environment.

If further action is needed, the service response force (SRF), a DA-level emergency response force, will deploy to the site. The SRF continues response operations, provides command and control of all military forces, and coordinates the activities of federal, state, and local response agencies. The Army SRF commander, executing the role of the federal OSC, executes coordinating duties per Army policy and the NCP.


Some government facilities may not be sufficiently staffed to address all applicable compliance requirements. Army personnel can assist these facilities in successfully completing and submitting applications and plans for permits. Depending on the size and mission of the environmental staff, a local commander can support short-term local missions. The USACE can best handle more extensive efforts on a cost-reimbursable basis. Typical compliance support projects include:


The Army can assist other government facilities in attaining and sustaining compliance with environmental laws and regulations. USACE districts provide comprehensive environmental compliance assessments that identify deficiencies and requirements for corrective action.

The Army developed the Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS) that allows Army environmental and land mangers to analyze, store, update, model, and display data quickly and easily. Analysis and display can be created for an entire geographic region. More that 100 Army installations, the National Park Service, and the Soil Conservation Service are currently using GRASS.


The Army emphasizes joint technology development and use with the EPA, the DOI, and other government agencies. This transfer of information improves compliance throughout the nation. The Army conducts an extensive environmental research and development program that focuses on developing methods and equipment to meet the growing compliance requirements of new laws and regulations. The Army has developed technical products independently and transferred them to other government agencies. The Army has also developed them jointly with other federal agencies. Within the Army, most environmental research and development occurs through the USAEC and USACE laboratories.


The USACE administers the National Wetlands Protection Program for the federal government. In this capacity, the Army serves as a regulator and oversees the restoration and mitigation of wetlands within the US.

In Illinois, an Army National Guard engineer battalion detonated 5600 pounds of explosives as part of its training and built a home for ducks at the same time. The explosions were intentionally set off near a lake to create a series of duck ponds.


Environmental restoration missions include correcting contamination problems resulting from past operations. Environmental investigations and remediation conducted by the Army mitigate adverse impacts to human health and the environment. Restoration efforts maximize the amount of property available for reuse and redevelopment.

Restoration missions fall into three categories: facility restoration, real property transfers, and general support. The USAEC and USACE can provide assistance in these areas. The USACE can provide longer-term assistance on a cost-reimbursable basis, while USAEC may provide short-term assistance. The primary restoration missions are depicted in Figure 6-3.

The Army conducts environmental investigations and remediation to protect human health and the environment.

Figure 6-3. Restoration Missions


The Army has extensive expertise in investigating and restoring sites under their control. In the Installation Restoration Program (IRP), the Army investigates sources of contamination, extent of contamination, exposure pathways to potentially impacted people and ecosystems, and potential health and ecological risks. Activities routinely conducted at Army sites include:

On request, USACE provides technical support to other federal agencies in the Work-for-Others Program. In this program, the other federal agency retains control and responsibility for the action but uses the technical capabilities of the Corps to accomplish the task.


The storage, release, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes directly affect the transfer of real property. The Army has gained considerable experience in mitigating these issues for unexploded ordnance (UXO), lead base paints, radon, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The Army assists local committees in developing reuse options that fully consider all appropriate environmental issues, identifying clean parcels, and remediating contaminated parcels. The Army can provide this support in any real estate transfer that other government agencies may consider.


The Army supports both state and federal agencies through specifically negotiated agreements. It provides direct support to the EPA in implementing The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. The Army supports state regulatory agencies through the Defense and State Memorandum of Agreement/ Cooperative Agreement (DSMOA/CA) Program. It conducts cooperative efforts in developing innovative technologies with other government agencies.

EPA Support

The Army has entered into an interagency agreement with the EPA to provide assistance in executing CERCLA, also known as the Superfund. Under this agreement, USACE serves as the program manager for execution activities assigned by EPA. These assignments include--

Defense and State Memorandum of Agreement/Cooperative Agreement Program

The DSMOA/CA Program was established to facilitate state and US territory involvement in cleanup activities conducted under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. DSMOAs/CAs provide a mechanism to involve states in installation restoration activities by establishing the terms and conditions by which they are reimbursed for the cost of providing technical support.

Research and Development

As a part of its environmental research and development program, the Army pursues cost-effective restoration technologies that can be transferred to any user. The US Army Environmental Center can provide consultations in such areas as analytical chemistry and industrial hygiene. The USAEC and USACE laboratories can provide assistance in applying technology.

The Army demonstrated an innovative idea for recovering heat lost at boiler plants at the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. The teflon-covered heat exchangers will pay back the investment in 5.2 years. This process saved the plant $13,000 in FY 88 and has potential for widespread application in military and civilian boiler plants.


Prevention assistance missions focus primarily on participating in pollution prevention programs with other agencies. The Army also shares information and technologies that reduce the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Pollution prevention is an ethic that must be learned at all levels of an organization. As a result of implementing its own pollution prevention program, the Army has gained considerable experience from recycling solid waste to manufacturing process changes.

The Army has gained valuable experience in preventing pollution.

Installation commanders can help local communities develop community recycling programs and support them. The local commander can work with local, county, or regional solid waste management organizations to integrate recycling efforts. Possible prevention missions are shown in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4. Prevention Missions

Pollution prevention is another driving force in the Army's environmental research and development program. Its efforts focus on changing or replacing existing processes to reduce and ultimately stop pollutant discharges. Examples of these technical innovations are the new generation of metal-plating procedures and advances in solid waste recycling. Once again, the Army may develop these technologies in concert with other government agencies or alone, then share their findings with other agencies.


Conservation assistance missions address the preservation and protection of America's natural and cultural resources for future generations. The Army works to conserve and protect natural and cultural resources on a daily basis. Typical Army conservation missions are listed at Figure 6-5.

Figure 6-5. Conservation Missions


With vast acreages, the Army conducts intensive military training while providing many sanctuaries for a wide variety of plants and animals. In so doing, the Army has gained experience in the proper care, repair, restoration, and management of these resources.

The Army often works with state and federal agencies in managing soils, vegetation, fish, wildlife, and water resources. The Army and the public both benefit from this cooperative effort because the protection of natural resources enhances the mission and preserves the enviornment for all.

The Army has vast experience in advanced land management techniques.
Approximately 300 breeding pairs of the Red Cockade woodpecker and other endangered bird species were on Fort> Bragg, NC. To save them, the Army closed off areas to vehicles, marked bird colony nesting boundaries, taught soldiers to recognize and observe training restrictions, built beams to absorb rifle fire on ranges, and set up artificial nests to attract more birds.


The Army may provide manpower and equipment to assist the NIFC in suppressing wildland fires. Initially, the NIFC contacts DOMS and requests military assistance. The DOMS tasks the appropriate CINC to appoint a DCO to confirm military support requirements. Once the DCO is appointed, the NIFC passes all resource requests to him. The Army may provide aviation, engineer, and communications support in addition to firefighters. The federal land manager trains soldiers before they are employed to fight fires. The NIFC provides the needed firefighting equipment and reimburses DOD from either the USDA or the USDOI. The wildland firefighting tasking and resourcing channels are depicted at Figure 6-6.


In the event of an emergency arising from an actual or imminent outbreak of a foreign plant or animal disease, the DOD provides assistance to the USDA's Administrator for Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). The Secretary of the Army, as DOD's executive agent, designates the Commander-in-Chief, Forces Command, as the operating agent supported CINC for DOD support to the USDA.

CINCFOR, as directed by the director of military support, provides personnel, equipment, supplies, and services to support the Regional Emergency Animal Disease Eradication Organization (READEO) task force. The READEO is the USDA organization responsible for completing all containment and eradication missions.

Included in CINCFOR's support is designating the base support installations (BSIs); tasking supporting CINCs, services, and agencies; developing contingency plans; and participating in exercises. Upon direction of CINCFOR, the BSI commanders provide personnel and logistics to the task force. USDA reimburses DOD for actual costs, less pay and allowances.

The BSIs may be outside FORSCOM and the Army. Resources provided by the BSIs can include technically qualified personnel to assist the USDA; the LSO; minimum essential TOE, TDA, and individual equipment; and procurement support.

The two key liaison officers are the veterinary support officer (VSO) and the LSO. The VSO, who is designated by Health Services Command, serves as the military point of contact with the READEO task force for veterinary support requirements. The LSO coordinates with the READEO task force director and determines the personnel, administrative, and logistical support requirements in the area of operations. The LSO provides the support requirements to the BSI and oversees the employment of DOD personnel and equipment. Figure 6-7 depicts command relationships for animal disease eradication operations.


The Army works to preserve cultural resources for present and future generations. The Army may provide experts in the field of historic preservation from the USAEC, USACE, and the local installations. Many communities are involved or are interested in preservation of historic buildings and similar properties but may lack expertise. This is especially true in many rural areas.

Installations or other Army activities may provide some assistance to local communities at no charge. Army experts may assist in developing local historic preservation committees and ordinances, identifying historic properties, and providing technical advice on the proper treatment of historic properties. For more involved projects, USACE districts and laboratories can provide assistance on a cost-reimbursable basis.


Upon request, the Army can provide national-level resources for state and local environmental problems. The Army offers a breadth of experience and the ability to provide solutions from regions throughout the United States to local environmental managers.


At the DA level, the Director of Environmental Programs is responsible for policy guidance and program oversight. His primary source of technical expertise is the US Army Environmental Center, a field operating agency of the DA staff.

Figure 6-6. Wildland Firefighting and Resourcing Channels


A network of Army organizations provides a wide variety of technical support to installations. These organizations include the MACOM staffs; the USACE laboratories, districts, and divisions; and field operating agencies (FOAs) such as the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency and the US Army Engineering and Housing Support Center.

MACOM staffs can execute many environment related missions. The USACE organizations can provide specific technical services and contracting capabilities on a cost-reimbursable basis. Army FOAs can provide technical experts in environmental engineering or science.


At this level, commanders can commit manpower and equipment to assist civil authorities in protecting, restoring, and preserving the environment. Environmental professionals at installations and STARCs focus on daily operations. These staffs are generally small. They concentrate on managing environmental resources and meeting regulatory requirements imposed by federal, state, and local regulations. In addition to addressing daily requirements, they develop contingency plans for potential hazardous material spills or similar incidents or accidents. The various internal Army environmental agencies and their relationships are shown in Figure 6-8.

Figure 6-7. Animal Disease Eradication Command Relationships


Commanders tailor forces to meet specific environmental support time requirements. Commanders may augment their forces with other related environmental professionals, including attorneys, public affairs specialists, safety specialists, and others who understand and work daily with environmental issues. Short-, mid-, and long-term missions on the local and regional levels and the recommended organizations that may provide assistance are shown in Figure 6-9.

Figure 6-8. Internal Army Environmental Support Relationships

Figure 6-9. Recommended Actions for Commanders Providing Environmental Assistance to US Civilian Authorities


The Army may support or coordinate with many federal, state, and local governmental departments and agencies as it conducts domestic support operations. Although the Army is seldom the lead agency in disaster assistance operations. it is a support agency for al the FRP's emergency support functions. Almost all Army domestic support operations will be conducted in a joint or interagency environment. Throughout our history, the Army has provided community support at the national level and support to its surrounding communities. The Army also has a long history of providing domestic support and will continue to provide that assistance in the future.