Figure 2-A.



Army support to federal, state, and local agencies covers a broad range of activities, events, and occurrences. The type of domestic support may vary from a static display at a local fair to a large deployment of troops, material, and supplies in response to a natural disaster. The scope may vary from involvement at the local community to massive operations covering a multistate or international arena. Depending on the type and scope of required support, the civil authorities and organizations that Army commanders assist wil also vary greatly. These organizations are addressed in this chapter in terms of their roles and responsibilities in disaster assistance, environmental assistance, law enforcement, and community assistance operations. Also addressed are the Department of Defense agencies and commands that have significant responsibilities for providing domestic support.


The Army will conduct domestic support operations in a joint and interagency environment.

The President, as the Chief Executive Officer of the US Government and Commander-in-Chief of all US military forces, authorizes the use of federal resources for domestic support operations. During disasters or other periods of national emergency, the President provides guidance and direction to federal departments, agencies, activities, and other organizations. The President does this by declaring, usually at the request of a governor, a disaster or emergency and appointing a federal coordinating officer (FCO) to coordinate federal-level assistance.

The President also provides leadership and direction in other areas that may generate Army support, for example, drug abuse, the social and physical infrastructure, and environmental pollution. The President may further assist in resolving these issues by committing federal resources or by proposing new programs.


Although not all-inclusive, the following list includes those organizations that have significant responsibilities in the categories of assistance addressed in this manual.


As the lead agency for food and firefighting under the FRP, the USDA has significant responsibilities in disaster assistance operations. The US Forest Service (USFS), an agency under the USDA, is responsible for leading firefighting efforts as well as protecting forest and watershed land from fire. Jointly with the Department of Interior (DOI), the USFS controls the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) in Boise, Idaho. The NIFC, in turn, provides national coordination and logistical support for federal fire control.

The USDA is scientifically and technically capable of measuring, evaluating, and monitoring situations where hazardous substances have impacted natural resources. In that regard, the USDA can also support environmental assistance operations involving cleanup of hazardous substances.


The ARC, under charter from Congress, is America's official volunteer disaster relief agency. In that capacity, it has a major role in disaster assistance operations, having been designated the lead agency for mass care under the FRP. Due to the general nature of its charter, it can provide support in environmental assistance, law enforcement, and selected community assistance operations.


The DOC provides fire and weather forecasting as needed from the NIFC or from a nearby weather forecasting facility. Through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, it provides scientific support for response and contingency planning in coastal and marine areas. Support includes hazard assessments, trajectory modeling, and information on the preparedness and sensitivity of coastal environments to hazardous substances. Based on its responsibilities and capabilities, DOC can provide support in both disaster and environmental assistance operations.


The DOEd establishes policy for, administers, and coordinates most federal assistance to education. It supports information and planning for disaster and environmental assistance operations. The DOEd may also become involved in selected Army community assistance programs that address education and training.


As the FRP's lead agency for energy, the DOE provides the framework for a comprehensive and balanced national energy plan through the coordination and administration of the federal government's energy functions. The DOE--


As the lead agency for hazardous material response under the FRP, the EPA has a significant role and responsibilities in both disaster and environmental assistance operations. It provides for a coordinated response by federal departments and agencies, state and local agencies, and private parties to control oil and hazardous substance discharges or substantial threats of discharges. In selected operations, it coordinates closely with the US Coast Guard (USCG), which is responsible for conducting hazardous material operations over coastal and inland waterways.


The FEMA is the federal government's executive agent for implementing federal assistance to a state and its local governments. In most cases, it implements assistance in accordance with the FRP. Organized into ten federal regions that provide support on a national basis, FEMA may be involved in either disaster or environmental assistance operations. Figure 2-1 depicts those regions.


The GSA is the lead agency for resource support under the FRP. Having extensive expertise both in contracting and providing services, GSA is an invaluable player in both disaster and environmental assistance operations.


The DHHS is the lead agency for health and medical services under the FRP. The Public Health Service (PHS), an agency under the DHHS, leads this effort by directing the activation of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). The DHHS is also responsible for assisting with the assessment of health hazards at a response site and the protection of both response workers and the general public. Agencies within DHHS that have relevant responsibilities, capabilities, and expertise are the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. The DHHS provides support for both disaster and environmental assistance operations and may also become involved in selective Army community assistance operations that provide medical support to disadvantaged communities.

Figure 2-1. Federal Emergency Management Agency


As a support agency under the FRP, the DOI provides support for disaster and environmental assistance operations. It also has major responsibility for American Indian reservations and for people who live in island territories under United States administration. Operating the NIFC jointly with the Department of Agriculture, the DOI has expertise on, and jurisdiction over, a wide variety of natural resources and federal lands and waters.


The DOJ plays a significant role in law enforcement and counterdrug operations. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is DOJ's lead agency for counterdrug operations. As the government's representative in legal matters, the DOJ may become involved in law enforcement operations, community assistance operations, and disaster and environmental assistance operations, providing legal advice on questions arising from oil and hazardous substance spills. The Attorney General supervises and directs US attorneys and US marshals in the various judicial districts. The DOJ has oversight authority for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and serves as the lead agency for operations involving illegal mass immigration. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is an arm of DOJ.


The DOL, through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, conducts safety and health inspections of hazardous waste sites and responds to emergencies. It must assure that employees are being protected and determine if the site is in compliance with safety and health standards and regulations. The DOL can thus become a support agency for disaster and environmental assistance operations.


As the lead agency for communications under the FRP, the NCS consists of representatives of 23 federal agencies and operates under the authority of the General Services Administration. The NCS provides communications support to federal, state, and local response efforts and is charged with carrying out the National Telecommunications Support Plan to ensure adequate communications following a disaster. It also provides technical communications support for federal fire control. Administratively structured, the NCS consists of an executive agent, a manager, a committee of principles, and the telecommunications assets.


Responsible for the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP), the NRC responds to the release of radioactive materials by its licensees. It provides advice in identifying the source and character of other hazardous substance releases when the commission has licensing authority for activities using radioactive materials. The NRC may serve in a support role in disaster and environmental assistance operations.


The DOS advises the President in the formulation and execution of foreign policy. Its primary mission in the conduct of foreign relations is to promote the interests of the United States overseas. In this capacity, the DOS manages the US Agency for International Development and the US Information Agency. The DOS also has a support role in disaster or environmental assistance events or domestic counterdrug operations having international implications.


As the lead agency for transportation under the FRP, the DOT coordinates federal transportation in support of federal agencies, volunteer agencies, and state and local governmental entities. It has support roles in ten other ESFs of the FRP. A subordinate agency of the DOT during peacetime, the US Coast Guard conducts counterdrug operations and, in conjunction with the EPA, hazardous material operations. The DOT and the USCG have major roles in disaster and environmental assistance operations. The DOT provides expertise regarding transportation of oil or hazardous substances by all modes of transportation.


The Department of Treasury, through its agency, the US Customs Service (USCS), regulates goods, people, and vehicles entering or leaving the United States and its territories. The USCS assesses and collects duties on imports and controls merchandise to prevent smuggling of contraband, including narcotics. As one of the primary federal agencies involved in support of law enforcement, the USCS plays a support role in planning for disaster or environmental assistance operations. Through the US Secret Service (USSS), the Department of Treasury is responsible for providing security for the President, the Vice-President, and visiting heads of state. The USSS can request the aid of the military--in particular, military police, military working dogs, and explosive ordnance disposal and signal personnel--in the conduct of security and protection missions.


The NWS predicts, tracks, and warns of severe weather and floods. It plays a support role in disaster or environmental assistance operations.


The DOD is the lead agency for public works and engineering, as well as urban search and rescue under the FRP. It has support roles in the 10 other ESFs, frequently becoming involved in disaster or environmental assistance operations. If directed by the President, DOD may provide support to law enforcement operations and selected community assistance initiatives. A diagram of DOD is at Figure 2-2.


The SECDEF has designated the Secretary of the Army (SA) as the DOD executive agent for providing DOD domestic support operations. These responsibilities are outlined in existing policies, procedures, and directives.


As the DOD executive agent for domestic support operations, the SA develops necessary planning guidance, plans, and procedures. The SA has authority to task DOD components to plan for and to commit DOD resources in response to requests for military support from civil authorities. Any commitment of military forces of the unified and specified commands must be coordinated in advance with the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS). The SA uses the inherent authority of his office to direct Army assistance to domestic support operations. A diagram of the Department of the Army is at Figure 2-3.


The DOMS, a general officer appointed by the SA, is the DOD primary contact for all federal departments and agencies during periods of domestic civil emergencies or disaster response. On behalf of the DOD, the DOMS and his supporting staff, serving as a joint staff, ensure the planning, coordination, and execution of many domestic support operations.


Selected commanders-in-chief (CINCs) have domestic support responsibilities, some of which are addressed below. More specific CINC responsibilities for civil assistance missions are identified in appropriate DOD directives, guidelines, and operational plans.

Commander-in-Chief, Forces Command (CINCFOR)

The CINCFOR serves as the DOD principal planning and operating agent for military support to civil authorities for all DOD components in the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia.

Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Command (CINCLANT)

The CINCLANT serves as the DOD principal planning and operating agent for military support to civil authorities for all DOD components within the Atlantic command area of operations (AO).

Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command (CINCPAC)

The CINCPAC serves as the DOD principal planning and operating agent for military support to civil authorities for all DOD components within the Pacific command AO.

Figure 2-2. Department of Defense

Figure 2-3. Department of the Army

Commander-in-Chief, Transportation Command (CINCTRANS)

The CINCTRANS serves as the DOD single manager for transportation, providing air, land, and sea transportation to meet national security objectives. The CINCTRANS has combatant command (COCOM) of the Military Traffic Management Command, Air Mobility Command, and Military Sealift Command, collectively known as the transportation component commands.

Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)

The DLA supports civil disturbance operations under the provisions of OPLAN GARDEN PLOT, the National Civil Disturbance Plan, with wholesale logistics support for military assistance in disasters.


A CINC appoints the DCO to serve as the DOD single point of contact to the federal coordinating officer for providing DOD resources during disaster assistance. The DCO should collocate with the FCO and coordinates all FEMA mission assignments for military support. The DCO usually has operational control of all DOD forces deployed to support the federal effort. A defense coordinating element (DCE) will be organized to provide support staff for the DCO in the disaster area. The size and composition of the DCE is situation-dependent.


National Guard Bureau (NGB)

The NGB is the federal coordination, administrative, policy, and logistical center for the Army and the Air National Guard (ANG). It serves as the legal channel of communication among the United States Army, the United States Air Force, and the National Guard in the 54 states and territories. The Chief, National Guard Bureau, has executive agent responsibility for planning and coordinating the execution of military support operations. The Director, Army National Guard (DARNG), in coordination with the Director, ANG, is responsible to the Chief, NGB. NG commanders are responsible for planning and training their forces for both their federal and state missions.

State Area Command (STARC)

The STARC is a mobilization entity in each state and territory. It organizes, trains, plans, and coordinates the mobilization of NG units and elements for state and federal missions. The STARC is responsible for emergency planning and response using all NG resources within its jurisdiction. It directs the deployment and employment of ARNG units and elements for domestic support operations, including military support to civil authorities. As with active duty forces, emergency response may be automatic or deliberate. When the NG is in a nonfederal status, the governor serves as commander-in-chief of the NG in his state or territory and exercises command through the state adjutant general (TAG). While serving in state status, the NG provides military support to civil authorities, including law enforcement, in accordance with state law. Federal equipment assigned to the NG may be used for emergency support on an incremental cost-reimbursement basis.

US Property and Fiscal Officers (USPFOs)

USPFOs are Title 10 officers assigned to the NGB and detailed for duty at each state or territory. They are accountable for all federal resources (equipment, dollars, and real estate) provided to the NG of each state. The USPFO staff provides supply, transportation, internal review, data processing, contracting, and financial support for the state's NG. When required, the USPFO can operate as a support installation for active component or USAR forces on a reimbursable basis.

Emergency Preparedness Liaison Officers (EPLOs)

Representatives from the services are EPLOs to each state NG. As service planning agents' representatives to TAGs and STARCs, they plan and coordinate the execution of national security emergency preparedness (NSEP) plans, performing duty with the STARCs. EPLOs are Army, Navy, and Air Force Reservists who have been specifically trained in disaster preparedness and military support matters. Each reports to an active duty program manager or planning agent in his or her respective service who has responsibility and authority to provide (or seek further approval of) military support to the state. EPLOs must have a comprehensive knowledge of their respective service facilities. They must also monitor and update their portion of the DOD Resource Data Base (DODRDB). Upon appointment of the DCO, EPLOs may be ordered to active duty to serve as liaison representatives to the STARCs and their respective services.


The USAR is capable of extensive domestic support operations. This assistance and support may include the use of equipment and other resources, including units and individuals. USAR personnel may be activated in a volunteer status when ordered to active duty in lieu of annual training or after the President has declared a national emergency.


MACOM commanders may provide domestic support operations in accordance with authorized agreements they have reached with civil authorities in their surrounding communities or as directed by higher headquarters. Specifically, they may provide resources for disaster relief upon request, generally placing these resources under the operational control of the military commander in charge of relief operations.

US Army Health Services Command (HSC)

The HSC, as requested by the supported CINC, provides health service support (HSS) resources, including clinical personnel under the Professional Officer Filler System (PROFIS), for all categories of domestic support operations. These resources are normally attached to, or placed under the operational control of, a supported CINC HSS unit for the duration of the operation.

Continental US Army (CONUSA) Commanders

CONUSA commanders provide regional military support to civil authorities by planning for and conducting disaster relief operations within their areas of responsibility. They also establish and maintain disaster relief liaison with appropriate federal, state, and local authorities, agencies, and organizations.

US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)

The USACE is organized into geographically dispersed (CONUS and OCONUS) division and district subordinate commands. The USACE commander also serves as the chief of engineer soldier forces and in that capacity guides the Army staff in their utilization. The USACE's mission is to provide quality, responsive engineering service to the nation. The command applies substantial expertise to the areas of operation and maintenance of the national waterway infrastructure, environmental restoration and remediation, project planning and management, coordination of complex interagency or regional technical issues, and disaster planning and response. The USACE serves as DOD's lead agent, in direct support of FEMA, for public works and engineering in the FRP. Figure 2-4 depicts USACE division and district regulatory boundaries.

US Army Materiel Command (USAMC)

The USAMC may organize and deploy a logistics support element for domestic support operations. It provides supply, maintenance, technical assistance, and other services to the units. In addition, the logistics support element may organize a humanitarian depot to receive, store, and distribute relief supplies. The USAMC is the Army's executive agent for chemical and nuclear accidents and incidents.


This section addresses general state and local government responsibilities for responding to disaster assistance operations. Responsibilities for environmental assistance, support of law enforcement, and community assistance are discussed in chapters specifically addressing those operations. State and local government officials, operating under authority granted by state constitutions and local charters, are responsible for most of the daily safety and security issues that impact on their citizens' quality of life. State and local officials have primary responsibility for emergency preparedness planning and responding to emergencies.

Historically, NG units, under control of state governors and TAGs, have been the primary military responders in emergencies. Using federal military forces to support state and local governments is the exception rather than the norm. Federal forces are normally used only after state resources have been exhausted.



A state governor is empowered by the US Constitution and each respective state constitution to execute the laws of the state and to command the state's NG when it is serving in state status. Governors are also responsible for issuing Executive Orders declaring "states of emergency" and ensuring that state agencies plan for actions in the event of a disaster.

Once a disaster occurs, the governor assesses its extent and determines if local government requests for assistance should be honored. If appropriate, the governor declares a state of emergency, activates the state response plan, and may call up the NG. The governor gives the NG its mission and determines when Guard forces can be withdrawn. In the event a disaster exhausts state resources, the governor may petition the President for federal assistance.

Figure 2-4. Corps of Engineers Division and District Regulatory Boundaries

Office of Emergency Services (OES)

All states have a specific agency that coordinates emergency preparedness planning, conducts emergency preparedness training and exercises, and serves as the governor's coordinating agency in an emergency. The titles of these offices vary from state to state, for example, Division of Emergency Government, Emergency Management Agency, Department of Public Safety, or Office of Emergency Preparedness. This manual refers to this office using the generic term Office of Emergency Services. A diagram depicting a typical structure for state and local operational emergency services organizations and their linkages with equivalent federal organizations is at Figure 2-5.

Generally, the OES is either organized as a stand-alone office under the governor or aligned under TAG or the state police. It operates the state emergency operations center during a disaster or emergency and coordinates with federal officials for support if required. A diagram depicting typical organizations involved in state and local emergency response is at Figure 2-6.

The Adjutant General. The state NG is the governor's primary response force in an emergency. The TAG, through the STARC (specifically the Plans, Operations and Military Support Officer (POMSO)) coordinates emergency response plans for disasters and emergencies. TAG is in command of state NG forces called to state active duty.

Figure 2-5. State/Local Operational Emergency Services Organization

Figure 2-6. State and Local Emergency Response

Plans, Operations, and Military Support Officer

The POMSO plans for disaster response and recovery operations within the full spectrum of military support missions. Within each state, the POMSO coordinates training plans and exercises between the state NG and federal, state, and local emergency management agencies. The POMSO will serve as the NG point of contact with DOD officials during a federal emergency or disaster.

State Government Agencies

State government departments and agencies prepare emergency response plans for their areas of specialization. They also participate in emergency preparedness exercises and respond according to plan.


Within their respective communities, mayors, city managers, local police and fire protection officials, county executives, sheriffs, prosecuting attorneys, and public health officials are some of the people responsible for law enforcement, safety, health, and fire protection on a daily basis. They are responsible for developing appropriate emergency response plans and responding to emergencies within their jurisdictions. Most local jurisdictions have an OES to plan and coordinate actions in an emergency. In many cases, local jurisdictions have mutual aid agreements with other jurisdictions that allow for firefighter and police assistance. Once local officials determine that an emergency is beyond the scope of their resources or ability to respond, the senior local official is responsible for requesting additional assistance from the state governor.


The Army may support or coordinate with many federal, state, and local governmental departments and agencies as it conducts domestic support operations. Although the Army is seldom the lead agency in disaster assistance operations, it is a support agency for al the FRP's emergency support functions. Almost all Army domestic support operations wil be conducted in a joint or interagency environment. Throughout our history, the Army has provided community support at the national level and support to its surrounding communities. The Army also has a long history of providing domestic support and wil continue to provide that assistance in the future.