[Congressional Record Volume 160, Number 150 (Wednesday, December 10, 2014)]
[Pages S6541-S6542]
From the Congressional Record Online through the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]

                         SUBMITTED RESOLUTIONS



  Mr. UDALL of New Mexico submitted the following resolution; which was 
referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations:

                              S. Res. 596

       Whereas, on October 1, 1965, six Indonesian Army generals 
     were killed by military personnel, including members of 
     Indonesia's Presidential Guard, and these killings were 
     blamed on the Indonesian Communist Party and labeled an 
     ``attempted Communist coup d'etat'';
       Whereas this alleged coup was used to justify the mass 
     killing of alleged supporters of the Indonesian Communist 
     Party, with estimates of the number of dead ranging from 
     500,000 to 1,000,000 killed;
       Whereas the targeted individuals were predominantly unarmed 
     civilians, and often included members of trade unions, 
     intellectuals, teachers, ethnic Chinese, and those involved 
     in the women's movement;
       Whereas these killings and the imprisonment of up to 
     1,000,000 targeted individuals were done without due process 
     of law;
       Whereas the targeted individuals were subject to 
     extrajudicial execution, torture, rape, forced disappearance, 
     forced labor, and forced eviction;
       Whereas the United States Central Intelligence Agency in a 
     1968 research study described the period as one of the worst 
     mass murders of the twentieth century;
       Whereas the United States Government provided the 
     Indonesian Army with financial, military, and intelligence 
     support during the period of the mass killings, and did so 
     aware that such killings were taking place as recorded in 
     partially declassified documents in the Department of State 
     history, ``Foreign Relations of the United States'', 
     pertaining to this period;
       Whereas, within months of military leader Suharto's 
     assumption of the presidency following the mass killing, the 
     United States Government began sending economic and military 
     support to Suharto's military regime, and played an 
     indispensable role in its consolidation of power;
       Whereas aid to the Suharto government continued for more 
     than three decades, despite on-going crimes against humanity 
     committed by the Suharto government, including mass killing 
     and other gross violations of human rights during the 
     invasion and subsequent 24-year occupation of East Timor;
       Whereas perpetrators of the 1965-66 mass killings have 
     largely lived with impunity, and the survivors and 
     descendants of the victims suffer continuing discrimination 
     economically and for decades had limited civil and political 
     rights, as noted in the 2012 Indonesia National Commission on 
     Human Rights report;
       Whereas the United States Government has not yet fully 
     declassified all relevant documents concerning this time 
     period, and full disclosure could help bring historical 
     clarity to atrocities committed in Indonesia between 1965 and 
       Whereas the United States Government has in recent years 
     supported the declassification and release of documents in 
     support of truth and reconciliation efforts following periods 
     of violence in countries such as Chile and Brazil;
       Whereas open dialogue about alleged past crimes against 
     humanity and past human rights violations is important for 
     continued efforts to reconcile populations of Indonesia and 
     to ensure a stable, sustainable peace that will benefit the 
     region and beyond;
       Whereas, Indonesia has undergone a remarkable democratic 
     transition over the last two decades, and is the world's 
     third largest democracy with the largest Muslim population in 
     the world;
       Whereas through free and fair elections, the people of 
     Indonesia have elected new leaders who now have the 
     opportunity to establish a culture of accountability in 
     partnership with the country's vibrant civil society, press, 
     academia, and human rights activists;
       Whereas the relationship between the United States and 
     Indonesia is strong and involves many shared interests, as 
     reflected in the 2010 United States-Indonesia Comprehensive 
     Partnership, including democracy and civil society, 
     education, security, climate and environment, energy, and 
     trade and investment;
       Whereas the economic relationship between the United States 
     and Indonesia is strong, with bilateral goods trade exceeding 
     $27,000,000,000 and with major United States companies making 
     significant long-term investments in Indonesia; and
       Whereas strong relations between the United States and 
     Indonesia are mutually beneficial to both countries: Now, 
     therefore, be it
       Resolved, That the Senate--
       (1) condemns the mass murder in Indonesia in 1965-66;

[[Page S6542]]

       (2) expresses great concern about the lack of 
     accountability enjoyed by those who carried out crimes during 
     this period;
       (3) urges political leaders in Indonesia to consider a 
     truth, justice, and reconciliation commission to address 
     alleged crimes against humanity and other human rights 
     violations, and to work to mend differences and animosity 
     that remain after the 1965-66 mass killings; and
       (4) calls on the Department of State, the Department of 
     Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and others involved 
     in developing and implementing policy towards Indonesia 
     during this time period to establish an interagency working 
     group to--
       (A) locate, identify, inventory, recommend for 
     declassification, and make available to the public all 
     classified records and documents concerning the mass killings 
     of 1965 and 1966, including records and documents pertaining 
     to covert operations in Indonesia from January 1, 1964 
     through March 30, 1966;
       (B) coordinate with Federal agencies and take such actions 
     as necessary to expedite the release of such records to the 
     public; and
       (C) submit a report to Congress describing all such 
     records, the disposition of such records, and the activities 
     of the Interagency Group.
  Mr. UDALL of New Mexico. Mr. President, our Nation and Indonesia 
enjoy a strong relationship, reflected in the U.S.-Indonesia 
Comprehensive Partnership of 2010. This partnership is robust and 
growing. It serves both of our countries for bilateral, regional, and 
global cooperation. The election of President Widodo in July was a step 
forward--part of a great democratic tradition--over the past two 
decades in Indonesia. We are working together for economic growth, for 
the environment, and for our security.
  This is progress--and to be encouraged. Indonesia has a major role to 
play as a regional and global leader, but in that role it must be an 
inclusive democracy. Key to this is to address past human rights 
abuses--specifically the mass murders committed in 1965 to 1966. Next 
year is the 50th anniversary of those killings.
  I rise today, International Human Rights Day, to submit a resolution 
concerning those events, which Indonesia's own Human Rights Commission 
has labeled a crime against humanity. But let me be clear. This is not 
a censure of the people of Indonesia or Indonesia's new government; it 
is an opportunity for justice and for reconciliation.
  The events took place decades ago. The reasons behind them are 
complex, but that cannot justify the past or forgetting those who 
suffered under it, nor can we ignore our own government's role during 
that time.
  My resolution proposes two things:
  First, I urge Indonesia's new government to create a truth and 
reconciliation commission to address these crimes. Second, I urge our 
own government to establish an interagency working group and to release 
relevant classified documents. We should make clear what was known to 
us, and we should make this information available.
  It is a painful history to recall. On October 1, 1965, six Indonesian 
Army generals were killed. According to scholars, these generals were 
killed by military personnel, but their deaths were blamed on 
Indonesia's Communist Party, which was used to justify mass murders.
  The next few months were horrific for the Indonesian people. The CIA 
has called it one of the worst periods of mass murder in the 20th 
century. Hundreds of thousands were killed. Many others were 
imprisoned, tortured, raped, starved, and disappeared across the 
country. These individuals were targeted for their alleged association 
with communism, but they came from all walks of life, including women's 
groups, teachers, intellectuals, and others. Most were unarmed, and 
none had due process of law.
  The United States provided financial and military assistance during 
this time and later, according to documents released by the State 
Department, and General Suharto consolidated his power, ruling from 
1967 to 1998.
  Some may ask, why is this resolution needed? Why now? This is why. 
The survivors and descendents of victims continue to be marginalized. 
Many of the killers continue to live with impunity. Very few Americans 
are aware of these historical events or our government's actions during 
this time. These events demand our attention and resolution as we work 
together to build a strong Asia-Pacific partnership.
  I am proud to serve on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. An 
important goal is the development of peaceful, stable democracies--
democracies that provide security and hope to their own people and 
economic opportunity for businesses in my State and across the United 
  Indonesia is the world's third-largest democracy. Its population is 
diverse. It has the largest Muslim majority population in the world. It 
has faced many challenges and continues to move forward. A strong U.S.-
Indonesia relationship benefits both of our countries. I offer this 
resolution in support of that relationship and Indonesia's continued 
progress as a growing democracy and a vital U.S. ally.